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Table 1 Characteristics of the 57 studies included in the systematic review

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in primary-care and specialist physician visits: a systematic review

Author Year Countries database (target population) number of participants age of participants
Abasolo, Saez, López-Casasnovas [15] 2017 Spain Spanish National Health Survey 2011/12 19,935 ≥ 15 years
Agerholm et al. [16] 2013 Sweden Public Health Survey in Stockholm County 2006,
Stockholm County Council’s administrative database 2007,
Longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labor market studies
31,848 25 to 84 years
Allin [17] 2008 Canada Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 104,510 ≥ 15 years
Asada, Kephart [18] 2007 Canada Canadian Community Health Survey 2000/1 133,300 ≥ 20 years
Bago d’Uva, Jones, van Doorslaer [19] 2009 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain European Community Household Panel User Database 1994–2001 N.A. ≥ 16 years
Baron-Epel, Garty, Green [20] 2007 Israel Israel National Health Survey 2003/04 9512 ≥ 21 years
Beckman, Anell [21] 2013 Sweden Skåne Regional Council and Statistics Sweden 2010/11,
Statistics Sweden 2009
828,988 25 to 84 years
Bergmann, Kalcklösch, Tiemann [22] 2005 Germany Telephone Health Survey 2003 8318 ≥ 18 years
Bourke [23] 2009 Ireland Living in Ireland survey 2001 6518 ≥ 16 years
Bremer, Wübker [24] 2013 Germany Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe 2004–2006 2861 ≥ 50 years
Bremer, et al. [25] 2018 pooled data from 16 European countries Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe 2010/11 56,989 ≥ 50 years
Crespo-Cebada, Urbanos-Garrido [26] 2012 Spain Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe 2006/07 1860 ≥ 50 years
Devaux, de Looper [27] 2012 Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, New Zealand, Poland, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, UK European Health Interview Surveys (2006/07, 2007, 2008 or 2009)
other national health interview surveys (2005, 2006/07, 2007, 2007/08, 2008 or 2009)
N.A. ≥ 15 years
Fjaer, et al. [28] 2017 Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK European social survey 2014 31,971 25 to 75 years
Garrido-Cumbrera, et al. [29] 2010 Spain Spanish National Health Survey 2006 29,478 ≥ 16 years
Glazier et al. [30] 2009 Canada Canadian Community Health Survey 2000/01,
Physician claim files in 2002/03 and 2003/04
25,558 20 to 79 years
Gonzalez-Alvarez, Barranquero [31] 2009 Spain European Community Household Panel 1994–2001 15,076 ≥ 16 years
Grasdal, Monstad [32] 2011 Norway Survey of Living Conditions 2005,
Administrative records 2005
3002 16 to 69 years
Gruber, Kiesel [33] 2010 Germany Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe 2004 2260 50 to 90 years
Habicht, Kunst [34] 2005 Estonia Survey of Living Conditions 1999 3990 25 to 74 years
Hansen, et al. [35] 2012 Norway Tromsø Study 2007/08 12,982 30 to 87 years
Hoebel, et al. [12] 2016 Germany German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–2011 6754 18 to 69 years
Hoeck, et al. [36] 2011 Belgium Belgian Health Interview Survey 2001–2004 4494 ≥ 65 years
Hoeck, et al. [37] 2013 Belgium Belgian Health Interview Survey 2001–2004 19,563 ≥ 16 years
Korda, et al. [38] 2009 Australia Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health 2004 10,905 53 to 58 years
La Parra-Casado, et al. [39] 2018 Spain Spanish National Health Survey 2011/12 21,650 ≥ 16 years
Lichte [40] 2017 Germany random sample survey of general practitioner attenders 2015/16 519 ≥ 18 years
Lostao, et al. [41] 2011 UK, Spain General Household Survey 2004/05
Spanish National Health Survey 2003
36,488 ≥ 16 years
Lu, et al. [42] 2007 Hong Kong Thematic Household Survey 2002 19,522 ≥ 16 years
Masseria, Giannoni [43] 2010 Italy Multiscopo Survey 1999/2000 109,964 >  16 years
McDonald, Conde [44] 2010 Canada Canadian Community Health Survey 2002/03 39,974 55 to 79 years
Mosquera, et al. [45] 2017 Sweden Health on Equal Terms survey 2014 3016 16 to 25 years
Nolan [46] 2007 Ireland Living in Ireland Survey 1995–2001 49,237 ≥ 16 years
Palència, et al. [47] 2013 Spain Spanish National Health Survey 2006 20,478 ≥ 16 years
Põlluste, Kalda, Lember [48] 2009 Estonia random sample survey of general population 2005 182 65 to 74 years
Rattay et al. [49] 2013 Germany German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–2011 8152 18 to 79 years
Regidor, et al. [50] 2008 Spain Spanish National Health Survey 2003/04 18,837 16 to 74 years
Reibling, Wendt [51] 2010 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe 2004 26,808 ≥ 50 years
Rogowski et al. [52] 2008 USA random sample survey of Medicare enrollees 2000;
administrative data
4600 ≥ 65 years
Ryvicker, Gallo, Fahs [53] 2012 USA random sample survey of community-dwelling older senior center attendees 2008 1870 60 to 99 years
San Sebastian, Mosquera, Gustafsson [54] 2017 Sweden Health on equal terms survey 2014
Statistics Sweden
24,889 19 to 84 years
Schnitzer, et al. [55] 2011 Germany Representative sample survey of the population with statutory health insurance 2010 5232 18 to 79 years
Schulz [56] 2016 pooled data from 13 European countries Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement 2004/05–2006/07 48,065 ≥ 40 years
Stirbu, et al. [11] 2011 Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Norway several national health surveys between 1995 and 2004 104,503 ≥ 15 years
Suominen-Taipale, et al. [57] 2004 Finland, Norway The Health Study of Nord-Trondelag, HUNT 1995–1997
FINRISK-97 senior survey 1997
9202 65 to 74 years
Tavares, Zantomio [58] 2017 Italy, Spain, Portugal Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe 2011 9049 ≥ 50 years
Terraneo [10] 2015 pooled data from 12 European countries Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe 2007–2009 16,431 ≥ 50 years
Thode et al. [59] 2005 Germany German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 1998 7124 18 to 79 years
Tille, et al. [60] 2017 Germany random sample survey of the general population 2006–2016 42,925 ≥ 18 years
van Doorslaer, Koolman, Jones [61] 2004 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK European community household panel 1996 N.A. ≥ 16 years
van Doorslaer, Masseria, Koolman [62] 2006 Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, UK European community household panel and other nationally representative surveys 1996–2002 N.A. ≥ 16 years
van Ourti [63] 2004 Belgium panel study of Belgian households 2001 4809 >  15 years
Vasquez, Paraje, Estay [64] 2013 Chile national socio-economic characterization survey 2009 246,924 ≥ 18 years
Vedsted et al. [65] 2004 Denmark intervention study of general practitioner attenders 2526 20 to 64 years
Vedsted, Olesen [66] 2005 Denmark intervention study of general practitioner attenders 2211 20 to 64 years
Vikum, et al. [67] 2013 Norway Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006/08
register data
46,860 ≥ 20 years
Vikum, Krokstad, Westin [68] 2012 Norway Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006/08
register data
44,755 ≥ 20 years
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