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Table 1 Basic characteristics of sample observations

From: Does the separating of hospital revenue from drug sales reduce the burden on patients? Evidence from China

Variable name Full sample (n = 514,631) In 2013 (n = 121,130) In 2014 (n = 160,482) In 2015 (n = 233,019)
Mean Std.Dev. Mean Std.Dev. Mean Std.Dev. Mean Std.Dev.
Gender 0.52 0.50 0.53 0.49 0.52 0.50 0.52 0.50
Age (years) 86.25 23.81 86.37 24.35 86.34 23.56 86.10 23.68
Average length of hospital stay (days) 9.42 7.73 9.94 8.86 9.42 8.00 9.15 6.85
aClassification of hospitals 1.79 0.49 1.61 0.67 1.78 0.51 1.90 0.30
bDiseases types 1.85 0.47 1.83 0.49 1.84 0.49 1.87 0.44
cOutcome 1.99 0.36 2.00 0.39 1.99 0.39 1.98 0.31
  1. Gender: Male = 0, Female = 1. Classification of hospitals: Grade II Level C = 0, Grade II Level B = 1, Grade II Level A = 2.Diseases types: Chronic diseases = 0, Critical diseases = 1, Common diseases = 2. Outcome: Death = 0, Transfer = 1, Rehabilitation =2, Others = 3
  2. aClassification of hospitals are divided into Grade III hospitals, Grade II hospitals, Grade I hospitals according to their functions and roles. Grade I hospitals include community health centers and township health centers that directly provide prevention, medical care and rehabilitation services to residents. Grade II hospitals are secondary hospitals that provide comprehensive medical services to a region, undertake some teaching and scientific research tasks. Grade III hospitals are tertiary hospitals that provide high-level specialized medical services and undertake advanced teaching and scientific research tasks. In this study, the percentage of Grade II Level C, Grade II Level B, and Grade II Level A are 83%, 12%, and 5%, respectively
  3. bChronic disease refers to diseases that do not constitute infection and have long-term accumulation of disease form damage (i.e. high blood pressure, diabetes, etc.). Critical diseases refer to diseases that are costly to treat and severely affect the normal work and life of patients and their families for a long period of time (i.e. cancer etc.). In this study, the percentage of Chronic disease, Critical diseases, and Common diseases are 5%, 6%, and 89%, respectively
  4. cTransfer refers to patients that move from one hospital to another hospital. Rehabilitation refers to the patients that are cured and leave the hospital. Others refers to the outcomes of patients except death, transfer and rehabilitation. In this study, the Transfer, Rehabilitation, and Others are 3%, 91%, and 6%, respectively