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Table 4 The economic status difference in the effect of co-occurrence of frailty on catastrophic health expenditure among single empty-nest elderly with multimorbidity in rural Shandong, China, 2019

From: Catastrophic health expenditure among single empty-nest elderly with multimorbidity in rural Shandong, China: the effect of co-occurrence of frailty

Characteristic Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Interactiona Low economic status High economic status
OR P-value 95%CI OR P-value 95%CI OR P-value 95%CI
Health states
 None chronic condition 0.12 < 0.001 0.06–0.27 0.11 < 0.001 0.05–0.24 0.39 0.020 0.05–0.24
 One chronic condition 0.42 0.010 0.22–0.81 0.38 0.005 0.20–0.75 0.61 0.100 0.33–1.10
 Multimorbidity (ref) 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Multimorbidity+ frailty 3.87 0.047 1.02–14.71 4.64 0.027 1.19–18.2 2.76 0.062 0.95–8.00
Sex
 Male 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Female 1.34 0.249 0.81–2.2 0.96 0.920 0.47–1.97 1.54 0.221 0.77–3.32
Age (Years) 1.04 0.003 1.02–1.08 1.08 0.001 1.04–1.13 1.01 0.481 0.97–1.06
Educational attainment
 Illiterate 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Primary school 1.01 0.946 0.67–1.52 1.05 0.864 0.58–1.90 0.99 0.985 0.55–1.79
 Middle school or above 0.65 0.192 0.34–1.24 0.48 0.233 0.13–1.63 0.78 0.534 0.36–1.69
Cigarette smoking
 Never smoker 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Current smoker 0.65 0.121 0.37–1.12 0.74 0.486 0.31–1.73 0.56 0.133 0.27–1.19
 Former smoker 2.21 0.070 0.94–5.22 2.79 0.065 0.94–8.31 2.66 0.112 0.79–8.89
Alcohol drinking
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 2.60 0.113 0.79–8.52 0.48 0.052 0.23–1.01 0.57 0.154 0.26–1.24
Physical exercise
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 1.00 0.990 0.68–1.47 1.35 0.277 0.78–2.33 0.79 0.426 0.46–1.39
Inpatient service
 No 1.0    1.0    1.0   
 Yes 2.89 < 0.001 1.81–4.59 1.63 0.189 0.79–3.37 4.11 < 0.001 2.21–7.66
Household economic statusb
 Low(Q1/Q2) 1.0         
 High(Q3/Q4) 0.87 0.684 0.44–1.72       
Health states× Household economic status
 None chronic condition× High 3.12 0.040 1.05–9.26       
 One chronic condition× High 1.39 0.457 0.58–3.34       
 Multimorbidity× High 1.0         
  (Multimorbidity +frailty) × High 0.70 0.684 0.13–3.84       
  1. aThe interaction between health states and household economic status
  2. bUsing the quartile method, Quartile 1 (Q1) is the poorest and quartile 4 (Q4) is the richest