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Table 3 The effect of co-occurrence of frailty on the catastrophic health expenditure among single empty-nest elderly with multimorbidity in rural Shandong, China,2019

From: Catastrophic health expenditure among single empty-nest elderly with multimorbidity in rural Shandong, China: the effect of co-occurrence of frailty

  Model 1 (No covariates) Model 2 (Covariates)
Characteristic OR P-value 95%CI OR P-value 95%CI
Health states
None chronic condition 0.18 < 0.001 0.11–0.30 0.21 < 0.001 0.12–0.36
One chronic condition 0.47 < 0.001 0.32–0.71 0.51 0.003 0.33–0.79
Multimorbidity (ref) 1.0    1.0   
Multimorbidity+ frailty 2.92 0.007 1.34–6.35 3.19 0.005 1.41–7.24
Sex
 Male     1.0   
 Female     1.23 0.404 0.75–2.02
Age (Years)     1.05 0.003 1.01–1.08
Educational attainment
 Illiterate     1.0   
 Primary school     1.01 0.957 0.67–1.52
 Middle school or  above     0.71 0.290 0.38–1.34
Household economic statusa
 Low(Q1/Q2)     1.0   
 High(Q3/Q4)     1.20 0.353 0.82–1.77
Cigarette smoking
 Never smoker     1.0   
 Current smoker     0.64 0.117 0.37–1.15
 Former smoker     2.56 0.020 1.16–5.65
Alcohol drinking
 No     1.0   
 Yes     0.52 0.017 0.31–0.89
Physical exercise
 No     1.0   
 Yes     1.05 0.808 0.72–1.53
Inpatient service
 No     1.0   
 Yes     2.98 < 0.001 1.87–4.75
  1. aUsing the quartile method, Quartile 1 (Q1) is the poorest and quartile 4 (Q4) is the richest