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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the single empty-nest elderly (60+) in rural Shandong, China, 2019

From: Catastrophic health expenditure among single empty-nest elderly with multimorbidity in rural Shandong, China: the effect of co-occurrence of frailty

Characteristics Total No Chronic Condition One Chronic Conditions Multimorbidity Multimorbidity + frailty P-value
Total 606 (100.0) 137 (22.6) 240 (39.6) 173 (28.6) 56 (9.2)  
Sex       0.070
 Male 198 (32.7) 50 (36.5) 88 (36.7) 46 (26.6) 14 (25.0)  
 Female 408 (67.3) 87 (63.5) 152 (63.3) 127 (73.4) 42 (75.0)  
Age (Years) 73.1 ± 6.5 73.3 ± 6.6 73.4 ± 6.6 72.4 ± 6.0 72.9 ± 6.5 0.036
Educational attainment       0.548
 Illiterate 313 (51.7) 78 (56.9) 122 (50.8) 86 (49.7) 27 (48.2)  
 Primary school 217 (35.8) 59 (43.1) 118 (49.2) 87 (50.3) 29 (51.8)  
 Middle school or above 76 (12.5)      
Household economic statusa       0.005
 Low(Q1/Q2) 303 (50.0) 83 (60.6) 123 (51.2) 70 (40.5) 27 (48.2)  
 High(Q3/Q4) 303 (50.0) 54 (39.4) 117 (48.8) 103 (59.5) 29 (51.8)  
Cigarette smoking       0.225
 Never smoker 437 (72.1) 98 (71.5) 171 (71.2) 124 (71.7) 44 (78.6)  
 Current smoker 125 (20.6) 34 (24.8) 52 (21.7) 31 (17.9) 8 (14.3)  
 Former smoker 44 (7.3) 5 (3.7) 17 (7.1) 18 (10.4) 4 (7.1)  
Alcohol drinking       0.013
 No 469 (77.4) 97 (70.8) 179 (74.6) 145 (83.8) 48 (85.7)  
 Yes 137 (22.6) 40 (29.2) 61 (25.4) 28 (16.2) 8 (14.3)  
Physical exercise       0.020
 No 238 (39.3) 49 (35.8) 97 (40.4) 60 (34.7) 32 (57.1)  
 Yes 368 (60.7) 88 (64.2) 143 (59.6) 113 (65.3) 24 (42.9)  
Inpatient service       0.010
 No 469 (77.4) 117 (85.4) 190 (79.2) 122 (70.5) 40 (71.4)  
 Yes 137 (22.6) 20 (14.6) 50 (20.8) 51 (29.5) 16 (28.6)  
  1. aUsing the quartile method, Quartile 1 (Q1) is the poorest and quartile 4 (Q4) is the richest