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Table 3 Observed handwashing behavior sat baseline and endline, stratified by maternal education and wealth quintiles

From: Achieving equitable uptake of handwashing and sanitation by addressing both supply and demand-based constraints: findings from a randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh

Baseline characteristics Baseline Endline Difference in difference (DID) 95% CI Overall treatment effect 95% CI Impact of modifier on the treatment effect on outcomesb
Control
n (%)
Interventiona
n (%)
Control
n (%)
Interventiona
n (%)
Indicator 1: Observed mother’s hand cleanliness (both hands) 11% 6, 15  
 Education of mother
  Uneducated 43 (21) 50 (16) 39 (19) 98 (31) 17% 7, 27    
  Some primary education 103 (23) 154 (23) 115 (26) 228 (34) 8% 1, 16    0.0034
  Above primary 237 (32) 350 (32) 271 (37) 514 (47) 10% 4, 17    
 Wealth index
  Lowest quintile (Q1) 63 (23) 86 (20.6) 52 (19) 137 (33) 16% 7, 25    
  2ndquintile (Q2) 65 (23) 91 (22) 71 (23) 145 (36) 11% 2, 20    
  3rdquintile (Q3) 63 (24) 106 (24) 75 (29) 188 (42) 14% 4, 23    0.0041
  4thquintile (Q4) 84 (30) 111 (27) 102 (37) 161 (39) 5% −5, 16    
  Highest quintile (Q5) 108 (37) 160 (42) 125 (43) 209 (54) 7% −4, 17    
Indicator 2: Observed presence of water and soap in household handwashing station (s) 69% 61, 74  
 Education of mother    
  Uneducated 27 (13) 41 (13) 20 (12) 242 (96) 84% 75, 90    
  Some primary education 75 (17) 97 (15) 77 (21) 537 (98) 79% 75, 85    < 0.0001
  Above primary 208 (28) 316 (29) 235 (39) 919 (98) 58% 50, 65    
 Wealth index    
  Lowest quintile (Q1) 18 (7) 33 (8) 25 (11) 309 (95) 82% 75, 90    
  2ndquintile (Q2) 35 (12) 49 (12) 37 (16) 336 (98) 83% 75, 90    
  3rdquintile (Q3) 49 (19) 72 (16) 41 (19) 371 (97) 81% 75, 90    < 0.0001
  4thquintile (Q4) 69 (25) 109 (26) 90 (38) 351 (98) 58% 50, 70    
  Highest quintile (Q5) 139 (48) 191 (50) 139 (58) 331 (99) 39% 30, 50    
  1. aAll handwashing intervention arms (H, WSH and WSHN)
  2. b3-way interaction p-value (taking higher order)