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Table 3 Determinants of the prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure using a panel logistic regression model

From: Measurement and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure among elderly households in China using longitudinal data from the CHARLS

  (1)c (2)d (3)e
Variables Odds Ratio Odds Ratio Odds Ratio
Predisposing factors
 Household has a member older than 75 years (compared with younger than 75)
  Household has a member older than 75 years 1.370a (0.107)e 1.162 (0.438) 1.061 (0.552)
 Married (compare with no spouse)
  Living with spouse 1.731*** (0.004) 1.776*** (0.003) 1.767*** (< 0.001)
Enabling factors
 Zone (compared with eastern area)
  Middle area    1.363*** (0.008)
  Western area    1.317** (0.017)
 Area (compared with urban)
  Rural    0.825* (0.078)
 Insurance status (compared with no insuranceb)
  UEBMI 1.010 (0.982) 1.955 (0.106) 0.791 (0.592)
  UBMI 1.305 (0.353) 1.503 (0.166) 0.664 (0.323)
  OI 2.498 (0.214) 2.199 (0.270) 0.249 (0.216)
 Economic status (compared with poorest)
  Poor 0.502*** (< 0.001) 0.583*** (< 0.001) 0.527*** (< 0.001)
  Average 0.345*** (< 0.001) 0.449*** (< 0.001) 0.351*** (< 0.001)
  Richer 0.198** (< 0.001) 0.327*** (< 0.001) 0.310*** (< 0.001)
  Richest 0.079*** (< 0.001) 0.188*** (< 0.001) 0.116*** (< 0.001)
 Household size (compared with fewer than 4 members)
  Household size more than 4 0.970 (0.763) 0.871 (0.179) 0.899 (0.596)
Need factors
 Impatient compared with not impatient
  Inpatient 1.793*** (< 0.001) 1.763*** (< 0.001) 2.641*** (< 0.001)
 Chronic disease compared with no chronic disease
  Chronic disease 1.043 (0.910) 1.191 (0.626) 2.056*** (< 0.001)
 Disability compared with no disability
  Disability 1.926*** (0.005) 2.424*** (< 0.001) 1.127 (0.189)
 Outpatient compared with not outpatient
  Outpatient 2.706*** (< 0.001) 2.424*** (< 0.001) 3.294*** (< 0.001)
  1. Note: (a) * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01; (b) Abbreviations: UEBMI, Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance; NI, no insurance; UBMI, Unified Basic Medical Insurance for urban residents without formal employment and rural residents; OI, other insurance; (c) CHE was defined as 10% of total expenditure; (d) CHE was defined based on 40% of non-food expenditure; (e) The cross-sectional 2015 CHARLS data for logistic regression, and CHE was defined as 40% of total non-food expenditure; (f) P-value in parentheses
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