# Table 1 Household descriptive statisticsa (N = 2790)

Variables Definition 2011 2013 2015
Mean (SDb) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Health expenditure per month Continuous variable 34 (109) 62 (273) 77 (301)
Total expenditure Continuous variable 314 (357) 404 (693) 448 (709)
Non-food expenditure Continuous variable 144 (219) 213 (518) 250 (593)
Predisposing factors
Household member age above 75   0.16 (0.36) 0.23 (0.42) 0.30 (0.46)
Marriage 0 = No spouse 1 = With spouse 0.70 (0.46) 0.65 (0.47) 0.65 (0.48)
Enabling factors
Household size Continuous variable 2.54 (1.83) 4.28 (1.58) 2.38 (1.20)
Economic status 1 = Poorest 2 = Poor 3 = Average 4 = Richer 5 = Richest 2.57 (1.39) 2.50 (1.36) 2.37 (1.35)
Insurance typec 0 = NI 1 = UEBMI 2 = UBMI 3 = OI 1.81 (0.51) 1.80 (0.49) 1.84 (0.40)
Area 0 = Urban 1 = Rural 0.67 (0.49) 0.67 (0.47) 0.67 (0.47)
Zone 0 = Eastern 1 = Middle 2 = Western 1.14 (0.80) 1.14 (0.80) 1.14 (0.80)
Need factors
Inpatient or not 0 = No 1 = Yes 0.15 (0.36) 0.22 (0.36) 0.26 (0.44)
Chronic disease or not 0 = No 1 = Yes 0.83 (0.37) 0.83 (0.38) 0.87 (0.34)
Disability or not 0 = No 1 = Yes 0.30 (0.46) 0.45 (0.50) 0.46 (0.50)
Outpatient or not 0 = No 1 = Yes 0.30 (0.46) 0.32 (0.47) 0.30 (0.46)
1. Note: (a) Sorting was performed according to the CHARLS survey data; (b) The standard deviation is shown in parentheses; (c) Abbreviations: NI, no insurance; UEBMI, Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance; UBMI, Unified Basic Medical Insurance for urban residents without formal employment and rural residents; OI, other insurance