Skip to main content

Table 3 Quality assessment guidelines for quantitative studies

From: Urban poverty and nutrition challenges associated with accessibility to a healthy diet: a global systematic literature review

Author (year) Country (City) Design Specific population Definition urban space Definition poverty/ vulnerability Comparison group Access measure Nutritional outcomes Controls for confounders
Agarwal et al. (2009) [37] India (Delhi) Cross-sectional Households Slum Household assets wealth index Urban poor without food insecurity Food security
Akinboade & Adeyefa (2018) [38] South Africa (Tshwane) Cross-sectional Households Area within a city Low income level Food security
Appelhans, Waring, Schneider, & Pagoto (2014) [39] United States (Chicago) Cross-sectional Households City Poverty line/ Poverty threshold Child dietary pattern
Azambuja, Netto-Oliveira, Oliveira, Azambuja, & Rinaldi (2013) [40] Brazil (Cruzeiro do Oeste) Cross-sectional Children 6 to 10 years old City Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Overweight; obesity
Barosh, Friel, Engelhardt, & Chan (2014) [41] Australia (Sydney) Cross-sectional Food retail stores Area within a city Area defined as poor; low income level Urban non-poor Food basket affordability
Battersby & Peyton (2014) [42] South Africa (Cape Town) Geospatial Food retail stores City Low income level Distribution of food retail stores
Battersby (2019) [43] Multi-site Cross-sectional Households City Area defined as poor Food security
Belachew et al. (2012) [44] Ethiopia (Jimma zone) Longitudinal/Panel Adolescents 13 to 17 years old City Low income level Urban non-poor; semiurban poor; rural poor Food security
Birhane, Shiferaw, Hagos, & Mohindra (2014) [45] Ethiopia (Addis Ababa) Cross-sectional Households City Low income level Urban non-poor Food security; dietary diversity
de Souza Bittencourt, Chaves dos Santos, de Jesus Pinto, Aliaga, & de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva (2013) [46] Brazil (Salvador) Cross-sectional Children 6 to 12 years old Area within the city Poverty line/ poverty threshold Urban poor with different levels of food insecurity Food security
Castañeda-Castaneira, Ortiz-Pérez, Robles-Pinto, & Molina-Frechero (2016) [47] Mexico (Mexico City) Cross-sectional Children from 6 to 11 years old Area within a city Low socioeconomic level Child dietary pattern
Cavanagh, Jurkowski, Bozlak, Hastings, & Klein (2017) [48] United States (New York City) Case-control Patients with obesity, hypertension and/or diabetes. Area within a city Poor area Matched controls not receiving the program Body mass index
Chambers, Duarte, & Yang (2009) [49] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Dyad Mother-Child City Poor area Urban poor with different levels of household instability (psychosocial
and economic constraints)
Obesity
Costa, Horta, & Ramos (2019) [50] Brazil (Belo Horizonte) Cross-sectional Restaurant workers City Low income level Urban non-poor Food security Overweight; obesity
Cunha, Sichieri, de Almeida, & Pereira (2011) [51] Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Cross-sectional Adults
19 to 65 years old
Area within the city Low income level Urban poor with different dietary patterns Dietary pattern
Davies, Frausin, & Parry (2017) [52] Brazil (Multi-site) Geospatial Cities within the Brazilian Amazon City Poor area Food retail stores
Faye, Baschieri, Falkingham, & Muindi (2011) [53] Kenya (Nairobi) Longitudinal/
Panel
Households Slums Low income level Urban non-poor Food security
Floro & Bali Swain (2013) [54] Multi-site Cross-sectional Household Slums Poor area Urban poor with different types of enterprises Food security
Garcia et al. (2018) [55] United States (Baltimore) Cross-sectional Adult caregiver of 4 to 19-year-old children City Low income level Urban non-poor Dietary pattern
Gundersen, Lohman, Eisenmann, Garasky, & Stewart (2008) [56] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Children 10 to 15 years old City Low income level Urban non-poor, urban food secure Overweight
Jones & Charlton (2015) [57] Republic of Vanuatu (Port Vila) Cross-sectional Household City Relative household expenditure Urban non-poor Fruit and vegetable affordability
Kasper, Gupta, Tran, Cook, & Meyers (2000) [58] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Legal immigrants City Poverty line/ poverty threshold Urban food secure Food security
Kirkpatrick & Tarasuk (2011) [59] Canada (Toronto) Cross-sectional Households City Poverty line/ poverty threshold Urban non-poor Food security
Lim, Zoellner, Ajrouch, & Ismail (2011) [60] United States (Detroit) Cohort Adult caregiver of 3 to 5-year-old children City Poor area Urban non-poor Change in weight category over time
Lohman, Stewart, Gundersen, Garasky, & Eisenmann (2009) [61] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Dyad caregiver- adolescents 10 to 15 years old City Poor area and Poverty line/ poverty threshold Urban non-poor Overweight; obesity
Lopes, Sichieri, Salles-Costa, Veiga, & Pereira (2013) [62] Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Cross-sectional Adolescents 12 to 18 years old City Low income level Urban non-poor Dietary patterns Overweight; stunting
Manyanga et al. (2017) [63] Multi-site Cross-sectional Children 9 to 11-year-old City Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Dietary patterns
Martinez, Clark, & Gudzune (2019) [64] United States (Baltimore) Cross-sectional Households City Housing condition Urban without access to a vehicle Food security; dietary pattern
Martin-Fernandez, Grillo, Parizot, Caillavet, & Chauvin (2013) [65] France (Paris) Cross-sectional Adults Metropolitan area Poverty line/ poverty threshold Urban non-poor Food security
McCordic & Abrahamo (2019) [66] Mozambique (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Households City Household assets wealth index Urban with different levels of food security Food security
Miller et al. (2008) [67] United States (Chelsea) Cross-sectional Households City Food security Urban food secure Overweight; obesity; underweight; anemia; high lead
Morton, Bitto, Oakland, & Sand (2008) [68] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Adults Area within a city Poor area Rural poor Coping strategies for food access
Mutisya, Kandala, Ngware, & Kabiru (2015) [69] Kenya (Nairobi) Cohort Dyad mother-Child 6 to 24 months old Slum Household assets wealth index Urban with different levels of food security; urban with different levels of poverty Stunting
Nascimento-Ferreira et al. (2014) [70] Brazil (Imperatriz) Cross-sectional Adolescent 14 to19 years old City Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Abdominal obesity; overweight; obesity; high blood pressure
Odunitan-Wayas et al. (2018) [71] South Africa (Cape Town) Cross-sectional Supermarket costumers City Poor area; Food security Urban non-poor; Urban food secure Purchase pattern; access to food retail stores;
food environment perception
Omidvar, Ghazi-Tabatabie, Sadeghi, Mohammadi, & Abbasi-Shavazi (2013) [72] Iran (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Migrant women City Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Food security
Ortiz-Hernández, Acosta-Gutiérrez, Núñez-Pérez, Peralta-Fonseca, & Ruiz-Gómez (2007) [73] Mexico (Mexico City) Cross-sectional Elementary school students 4° to 6° grade Area within a city Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Dietary patterns Obesity
Park et al. (2011) [74] United States (New York City) Cross-sectional Female caregivers Area within a city Poor area Urban non-poor Dietary patterns
Ponce, Ramirez, & Delisle (2006) [75] Mexico (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Men 35 to 65 years old City Poor area Urban non-poor; rural poor Dietary diversity; Micronutrient adequacy score
Ramsey, Giskes, Turrell, & Gallegos (2012) [76] Australia (Brisbane) Cross-sectional Adults 25 to 45 years old Area within a city Low income level Urban non-poor Food security
Rani et al. (2018) [77] India (Varanasi) Cross-sectional Female adolescents Slums Low income level
Russell & Heidkamp (2011) [78] United States (New Haven) Geospatial Food retail stores City Poor area Urban non-poor. Distribution of food retail stores
Sarki, Robertson, & Parlesak (2016) [79] Nepal (Lalitpur) Cross-sectional Dyad mother-child
0 to 5 years old
Area within a city Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Stunting; underweight; overweight; obesity
Shaw (2012) [80] England (Birmingham) Geospatial Food retail stores that sell fresh produce City Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Distribution of food retail stores selling fresh produce
Tsai & Rosenheck (2013) [81] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Homeless City Homelessness Overweight; obesity
Vedovato et al. (2016) [82] United States (Baltimore City) Cross-sectional Households City Poor area Urban with different levels of food security Food security Overweight; obesity
Villamor et al. (2017) [83] Multi-site Cross-sectional Households Peri-urban area Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Metabolic syndrome
Vuong, Gallegos, & Ramsey (2015) [84] Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh) Cross-sectional Household Area within a city Poverty line/ poverty threshold; Household assets wealth index Urban non-poor Food security
Wagner et al. (2019) [85] Multi-site Cross-sectional Households Metropolitan area Social vulnerability index; food security Urban non-poor; urban with different levels of food security Dietary pattern; household food sources
Wang et al. (2012) [86] China (Multi-site) Cross-sectional Adults 18 to 74 years old Area within a city Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Abdominal obesity; overweight; obesity
Whitaker & Orzol (2006) [87] United States (Multi-site) Cross-sectional 3-year-old children City Poverty line/ poverty threshold Urban non-poor. Obesity
Wrathall (2014) [88] Multi-site Longitudinal/
Panel
Country Slums Poor area Obesity; body mass index
Yaemsiri, Olson, He, & Kerker (2012) [89] United States (New York City) Cross-sectional Adults Area within a city Poverty line/ poverty threshold Food security
Zhai, Xue, Luo, Zhang, & Cheng (2018) [90] China (Chengdu) Cross-sectional Children 7 to 12 years old City Low socioeconomic level Urban non-poor Overweight; obesity
Zhang & Debarchana (2016) [91] United States (Hartford) Geospatial Food retail stores City Social vulnerability index Urban non-poor Distribution of food retail stores