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Table 5 ‘Location within market relations’ class theory: associations between SF-36 health outcomes at age 50 and measures of class theory. Parameter estimates and predicted means (LSMeans) from multiply imputed and weighted regression modelling

From: Theory driven analysis of social class and health outcomes using UK nationally representative longitudinal data

  Physical functioning Emotional well-being General health
  Estimate
(SE)
Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate
(SE)
Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate
(SE)
Mean
(95% CI)
Intercept 61.0 (4.0)   60.4 (3.4)   38.3 (4.1)  
Gender
 Female −2.6 (0.5) 76 (75, 78) −2.2 (0.4) 68 (66, 69) 1.9 (0.5) 60 (59, 62)
 Male (ref) 79 (78, 80) (ref) 70 (69, 71) (ref) 58 (57, 60)
Own Social Class
 Professional (I) 6.0 (3.0) 82 (80, 84) 5.1 (2.3) 71 (70, 73) 7.0 (2.7) 63 (61, 65)
 Managerial-technical (II) 4.3 (2.9) 80 (79, 82) 5.2 (2.2) 71 (70, 72) 6.1 (2.7) 62 (61, 64)
 Skilled non-manual (III-NM) 2.7 (2.9) 79 (77, 80) 3.4 (2.2) 69 (68, 71) 4.4 (2.7) 61 (59, 62)
 Skilled-manual (III-M) 1.1 (2.9) 77 (76, 79) 4.6 (2.2) 71 (69, 72) 4.2 (2.7) 60 (59, 62)
 Partly skilled (IV) −4.3 (2.9) 72 (69, 74) −2.4 (2.4) 64 (61, 66) −2.8 (2.9) 53 (51, 56)
 Unskilled & Other (V/Other) (ref) 76 (71, 82) (ref) 66 (62, 70) (ref) 56 (51, 61)
Type of Secondary School
 Comprehensive 2.4 (1.7) 78 (76, 79) 1.6 (1.5) 69 (68, 70) 3.0 (1.72) 60 (59, 61)
 Grammar 3.8 (1.8) 79 (77, 81) 1.2 (1.6) 69 (67, 70) 3.2 (1.8) 60 (58, 62)
 Private 3.8 (1.8) 79 (77, 81) 1.5 (1.7) 69 (67, 71) 3.8 (1.9) 61 (58, 63)
 Secondary modern 2.9 (1.7) 78 (76, 80) 1.5 (1.5) 69 (68, 70) 2.0 (1.8) 59 (57, 60)
 Other (ref) 75 (72, 78) (ref) 67 (64, 70) (ref) 57 (53, 60)
Highest educational qualifications
 None −7.0 (1.4) 72 (70, 74) −4.1 (1.2) 66 (64, 67) −4.4 (1.4) 55 (54, 57)
 NVQ1 level/low-grade GCSE/O-levels or equivalent −1.7 (1.4) 77 (76, 79) −1.9 (1.2) 68 (66, 69) −0.4 (1.4) 59 (57, 61)
 O-level A-C grade/NVQ3 level or equivalent − 0.1 (1.3) 79 (77, 81) − 0.4 (1.1) 69 (68, 71) 0.6 (1.3) 60 (59, 62)
 A-levels/NQ3 level or equivalent 0.4 (1.3) 80 (78, 81) −0.4 (1.1) 69 (68, 71) 0.7 (1.3) 60 (59, 62)
 Degree/NVQ4 level or equivalent −0.1 (1.1) 79 (77, 81) 0.1 (1.0) 70 (69, 71) 0.6 (1.2) 60 (59, 62)
 Higher degree/NVQ5 level or equivalent (ref) 79 (77, 82) (ref) 70 (68, 72) (ref) 60 (57, 62)
Benefits (number of times received)
 0 17.6 (1.5) 86 (84, 87) 12.0 (1.3) 74 (73, 75) 17.4 (1.6) 67 (65, 68)
 1 15.3 (1.6) 83 (82, 85) 10.0 (1.3) 72 (71, 73) 15.3 (1.6) 65 (63, 66)
 2 11.9 (1.6) 80 (78, 82) 8.4 (1.4) 70 (69, 72) 13.0 (1.7) 62 (61, 64)
 3 3.2 (1.8) 71 (69, 74) 2.8 (1.5) 65 (63, 67) 3.5 (1.8) 53 (51, 55)
 4 or more (ref) 68 (65, 71) (ref) 62 (59, 65) (ref) 49 (46, 52)
Unemployment episodes (number of)
 0 1.1 (0.7) 79 (77, 80) 0.8 (0.6) 69 (68, 71) 1.9 (0.7) 61 (60, 62)
 1 −0.7 (0.8) 77 (75, 79) −0.9 (0.7) 68 (66, 69) −1.0 (0.8) 58 (57, 60)
 2 −0.1 (1.0) 78 (76, 79) 0.0 (0.8) 69 (67, 70) −0.5 (1.0) 59 (57, 61)
 3 or more (ref) 78 (76, 79) (ref) 69 (67, 70) (ref) 59 (57, 61)
Age left full-time continuous education 0.4 (0.1) −0.005 (0.1) 0.3 (0.1)
Family income per week (net) 0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.004)a 0.02 (0.01)a
Savings and Investments (£1000’s) 1E-05 (0.0003)a 0.0004 (0.0002)a 0.0002 (0.0003)a
Debt (£1000’s) −0.1 (0.04) −0.02 (0.03)a − 0.04 (0.04)a
  1. asmall parameter estimates