Skip to main content

Table 4 ‘Exploitation and domination’ class theory: associations between SF-36 health outcomes at age 50 and measures of class theory. Parameter estimates and predicted means (LSMeans) from multiply imputed and weighted regression modelling

From: Theory driven analysis of social class and health outcomes using UK nationally representative longitudinal data

  Physical functioning Emotional well-being General health
Variable Estimate
(SE)
Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate (SE) Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate (SE) Mean
(95% CI)
Intercept 100.0a (21.0) 83.1 (17.6) 51.4 (21.2)
Gender
 Female −3.5 (0.5) 83 (73, 94) −3.2 (0.4) 71 (63, 80) 0.8 (0.5) 64 (54, 74)
 Male (ref) 87 (76, 97) (ref) 75 (66, 83) (ref) 63 (53, 73)
Capital accrued (ranks)
 1 (least) −3.6 (2.7) 83 (72, 94) −1.8 (1.8) 72 (63, 81) −4.3 (2.5) 62 (51, 72)
 2 −3.4 (2.3) 84 (73, 94) −2.3 (1.7) 71 (63, 80) −4.3 (2.1) 62 (51, 72)
 3 −1.4 (2.0) 86 (75, 96) −0.9 (1.6) 73 (64, 82) −2.2 (1.9) 64 (53, 74)
 4 −0.9 (1.8) 86 (75, 97) 1.0 (1.4) 75 (66, 83) −0.8 (1.8) 65 (55, 75)
 5 (most) (ref) 87 (76, 97) (ref) 74 (66, 82) (ref) 66 (56, 76)
Main finance used to by home
 None 0.0 (2.1) 85 (75, 95) −0.5 (1.9) 73 (64, 81) 0.5 (2.1) 63 (53, 74)
 Building Society 0.4 (2.0) 85 (75, 96) 0.3 (1.7) 73 (65, 82) 1.9 (1.9) 65 (55, 75)
 Mortgage/Loan 0.3 (2.2) 85 (74, 96) −0.2 (1.9) 73 (64, 82) 0.5 (2.0) 63 (53, 74)
 Other ways (e.g. Sale property, Savings) (ref) 85 (75, 95) (ref) 73 (64, 82) (ref) 63 (53, 73)
Type of financial source for home purchase
 None 1.5 (24.6) 85 (36, 100a) 3.4 (18.9) 76 (38, 113) 11.1 (22.9) 72 (27, 118)
 Building Society Mortgage 1.7 (2.6) 85 (79, 92) 0.6 (1.2) 73 (67, 78) 1.1 (2.2) 62 (56, 69)
 Bank Mortgage/Loan 2.3 (3.1) 86 (79, 93) 0.5 (1.3) 73 (67, 78) 1.8 (2.7) 63 (56, 70)
 Other Loan (e.g. Private, Government Homeloan) 1.4 (2.7) 85 (78, 92) 0.5 (1.4) 73 (67, 78) 0.9 (2.1) 62 (55, 69)
 Gift/Inheritance 1.7 (4.1) 85 (77, 94) 0.0 (2.4) 72 (65, 79) −0.2 (3.4) 61 (53, 69)
 Other ways (e.g. Sale of previous property, Savings) (ref) 84 (76, 91) (ref) 72 (67, 78) (ref) 61 (54, 68)
Household size (excl. Bathroom & kitchen)
 0 −4.8 (2.5) 83 (71, 95) −4.8 (2.2) 71 (62, 81) −1.8 (2.6) 65 (53, 76)
 2 −5.7 (3.5) 82 (70, 94) −5.8 (2.9) 70 (60, 80) −9.6 (3.5) 57 (45, 69)
 3 − 1.9 (1.6) 86 (75, 97) −3.8 (1.3) 73 (64, 81) −1.5 (1.6) 65 (55, 75)
 3 −2.9 (1.0) 85 (75, 95) −3.9 (0.7) 72 (64, 81) −3.0 (0.9) 63 (54, 73)
 4 −2.3 (0.7) 86 (75, 96) −2.5 (0.6) 74 (65, 82) −2.4 (0.7) 64 (54, 74)
 5 −2.0 (0.7) 86 (76, 96) −1.8 (0.6) 74 (66, 83) −2.2 (0.7) 64 (54, 74)
 6 (ref) 88 (77, 98) (ref) 76 (68, 85) (ref) 66 (57, 76)
Mortgage as a percent of house price
 100% 1.3 (2.5) 86 (75, 97) 0.3 (2.0) 73 (65, 82) 2.9 (3.7) 65 (54, 75)
 90–100% 3.3 (2.8) 88 (77, 98) 1.3 (2.2) 74 (66, 82) 4.3 (2.8) 66 (56, 76)
 80–90% 0.8 (2.7) 85 (75, 95) 0.8 (2.4) 73 (65, 81) 0.7 (2.7) 63 (53, 73)
 70–80% 1.7 (3.3) 86 (75, 96) −0.2 (2.0) 72 (63, 80) 0.8 (2.5) 63 (53, 73)
 60–70% 0.6 (2.8) 85 (74, 96) −1.0 (1.9) 72 (63, 81) 1.8 (2.5) 64 (53, 74)
 50–60% −1.9 (3.2) 82 (71, 94) 1.7 (2.2) 74 (64, 83) 1.1 (2.4) 63 (51, 74)
 Under 50% (ref) 84 (72, 96) (ref) 73 (64, 82) (ref) 62 (51, 73)
Housing tenure
 Live rent-free, incl. in relatives/friends property −17.3 (20.9) 80 (71, 90) −6.8 (17.5) 72 (64, 79) 13.1 (21.2) 64 (56, 73)
 Other −9.3 (21.0) 88 (78, 99) −5.4 (17.6) 73 (65, 81) 18.7 (21.3) 70 (60, 80)
 Own - buying with help of mortgage/loan −11.1 (20.8) 87 (78, 95) −3.1 (17.5) 76 (69, 83) 19.3 (21.1) 71 (63, 79)
 Own - outright −10.9 (20.8) 87 (78, 95) −2.7 (17.5) 76 (69, 82) 18.1 (21.1) 69 (61, 77)
 Pay part rent/part mortgage (shared/equivalent of) −17.3 (21.1) 80 (69, 91) −9.5 (17.7) 69 (60, 78) 9.7 (21.3) 61 (50, 72)
 Rent it −22.8 (20.9) 75 (66, 84) −11.6 (17.5) 67 (60, 74) 6.6 (21.1) 58 (50, 66)
 Squatting (ref) 98 (56, 100a) (ref) 79 (44, 113) (ref) 51 (9, 93)
  1. aRounded-off to the maximum achievable score