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Table 2 ‘Social background and early life circumstances’ class theory: associations between SF-36 health outcomes at age 50 and measures of class theory. Parameter estimates and predicted means (LSMeans) from multiply imputed and weighted regression modelling

From: Theory driven analysis of social class and health outcomes using UK nationally representative longitudinal data

 

Physical functioning

Emotional well-being

General health

Variable

Estimate (SE)

Mean

(95% CI)

Estimate (SE)

Mean

(95% CI)

Estimate (SE)

Mean

(95% CI)

Intercept

82.4 (2.5)

67.8 (2.0)

61.4 (2.5)

Gender

 Female

−3.3 (0.5)

82 (80, 84)

−3.0 (0.4)

71 (69, 73)

1.1 (0.5)

66 (64, 68)

 Male

(ref)

86 (83, 88)

(ref)

74 (72, 76)

(ref)

65 (63, 67)

Father’s Social Class

 Professional (I)

5.2 (1.5)

86 (83, 89)

2.4 (1.2)

73 (71, 75)

6.1 (1.5)

68 (65, 71)

 Managerial-technical (II)

4.5 (1.2)

86 (83, 88)

2.1 (1.0)

73 (71, 75)

4.8 (1.2)

67 (65, 69)

 Skilled non-manual (III-NM)

4.2 (1.2)

85 (83, 88)

2.7 (1.0)

73 (71, 76)

4.6 (1.2)

67 (64, 69)

 Skilled-manual (III-M)

2.0 (1.0)

83 (81, 85)

1.4 (0.8)

72 (70, 74)

2.6 (1.0)

65 (63, 67)

 Partly skilled (IV)

1.1 (1.1)

82 (80, 84)

1.8 (0.9)

72 (70, 74)

2.2 (1.0)

64 (62, 67)

 Unskilled & Other (V/Other)

(ref)

81 (79, 83)

(ref)

71 (69, 73)

(ref)

62 (60, 65)

Grandparent’s Social Class

 Professional (I)

−0.4 (1.9)

84 (80, 87)

0.4 (1.7)

73 (69, 76)

−1.2 (1.9)

65 (61, 69)

 Managerial-technical (II)

−0.5 (1.2)

84 (81, 86)

1.1 (0.9)

73 (71, 75)

−0.3 (1.2)

66 (64, 68)

 Skilled non-manual (III-NM)

−0.4 (1.4)

84 (82, 87)

0.5 (1.2)

73 (70, 75)

−0.4 (1.5)

66 (63, 69)

 Skilled-manual (III-M)

−0.5 (1.0)

84 (81, 86)

−0.2 (0.8)

72 (70, 74)

−1.6 (1.0)

65 (63, 67)

 Partly skilled (IV)

−0.3 (1.0)

84 (81, 86)

−0.1 (0.8)

72 (70, 74)

−0.9 (1.0)

65 (63, 68)

 Unskilled & Other (V/Other)

(ref)

84 (81, 87)

(ref)

72 (70, 74)

(ref)

66 (64, 69)

Mother’s education (Did stay at school after min. Leaving age?)

 Did not stay-16 years

−3.0 (1.6)

82 (80, 84)

−1.7 (1.4)

71 (70, 73)

−2.2 (1.7)

64 (62, 66)

 Did stay-16 years

−1.7 (1.7)

84 (81, 86)

0.1 (1.4)

73 (71, 75)

−0.6 (1.7)

66 (63, 68)

 Did stay-16 to 18 years

−1.0 (1.6)

84 (82, 87)

−1.1 (1.4)

72 (70, 74)

0.2 (1.7)

66 (64, 69)

 Did stay-19 or more years

(ref)

85 (82, 89)

(ref)

73 (70, 76)

(ref)

66 (63, 70)

Father’s education (Did stay at school after min. Leaving age?)

 Did not stay-16 years

−2.3 (1.4)

82 (80, 85)

0.9 (1.2)

73 (71, 74)

−2.4 (1.5)

64 (62, 67)

 Did stay-16 years

−1.7 (1.4)

83 (81, 85)

0.5 (1.3)

72 (70, 74)

−2.4 (1.5)

64 (62, 67)

 Did stay-16 to 18 years

0.3 (1.5)

85 (83, 87)

1.3 (1.2)

73 (71, 75)

−0.6 (1.5)

66 (64, 69)

 Did stay-19 or more years

(ref)

85 (82, 88)

(ref)

72 (69, 74)

(ref)

67 (64, 70)

Receipt of free school meals by any child in the household

 No

3.4 (0.8)

86 (83, 88)

1.9 (0.7)

73 (71, 75)

2.7 (0.8)

67 (65, 69)

 Yes

(ref)

82 (80, 84)

(ref)

71 (70, 73)

(ref)

64 (62, 66)

Experienced family financial hardships in childhood

 Never

2.6 (1.4)

86 (84, 88)

4.6 (1.2)

75 (73, 76)

5.1 (1.4)

68 (66, 70)

 Once

−0.3 (1.4)

83 (81, 85)

2.4 (1.2)

72 (71, 74)

1.8 (1.4)

65 (63, 67)

 Twice or more

(ref)

83 (80, 86)

(ref)

70 (67, 73)

(ref)

63 (60, 66)

Experienced overcrowding in childhood

 Never

2.8 (1.2)

85 (83, 88)

1.8 (1.0)

73 (71, 75)

1.1 (1.2)

66 (64, 68)

 Once

0.8 (1.3)

84 (81, 86)

1.2 (1.1)

72 (70, 74)

0.6 (1.3)

65 (63, 68)

 Twice

1.0 (1.5)

84 (81, 86)

1.8 (1.2)

73 (71, 75)

0.9 (1.5)

66 (63, 68)

 Three times or more

(ref)

83 (80, 86)

(ref)

71 (69, 74)

(ref)

65 (62, 68)

Access to household amenitiesa

 Shared or no sole use

1.1 (2.1)

86 (81, 90)

1.6 (1.8)

74 (71, 78)

1.4 (2.1)

68 (64, 73)

 Sole use of 1

−2.7 (1.9)

82 (78, 86)

−2.5 (1.6)

70 (67, 74)

−4.6 (1.9)

62 (58, 66)

 Sole use of 2

−1.4 (1.4)

83 (80, 86)

−0.8 (1.2)

72 (69, 75)

−2.3 (1.4)

65 (62, 68)

 Sole use of 3

(ref)

85 (83, 86)

(ref)

73 (72, 74)

(ref)

67 (65, 68)

  1. aAccess to household amenities: indoor toilet, bathroom, kitchen
  2. SE standard error, ref reference category