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Table 2 ‘Social background and early life circumstances’ class theory: associations between SF-36 health outcomes at age 50 and measures of class theory. Parameter estimates and predicted means (LSMeans) from multiply imputed and weighted regression modelling

From: Theory driven analysis of social class and health outcomes using UK nationally representative longitudinal data

  Physical functioning Emotional well-being General health
Variable Estimate (SE) Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate (SE) Mean
(95% CI)
Estimate (SE) Mean
(95% CI)
Intercept 82.4 (2.5) 67.8 (2.0) 61.4 (2.5)
Gender
 Female −3.3 (0.5) 82 (80, 84) −3.0 (0.4) 71 (69, 73) 1.1 (0.5) 66 (64, 68)
 Male (ref) 86 (83, 88) (ref) 74 (72, 76) (ref) 65 (63, 67)
Father’s Social Class
 Professional (I) 5.2 (1.5) 86 (83, 89) 2.4 (1.2) 73 (71, 75) 6.1 (1.5) 68 (65, 71)
 Managerial-technical (II) 4.5 (1.2) 86 (83, 88) 2.1 (1.0) 73 (71, 75) 4.8 (1.2) 67 (65, 69)
 Skilled non-manual (III-NM) 4.2 (1.2) 85 (83, 88) 2.7 (1.0) 73 (71, 76) 4.6 (1.2) 67 (64, 69)
 Skilled-manual (III-M) 2.0 (1.0) 83 (81, 85) 1.4 (0.8) 72 (70, 74) 2.6 (1.0) 65 (63, 67)
 Partly skilled (IV) 1.1 (1.1) 82 (80, 84) 1.8 (0.9) 72 (70, 74) 2.2 (1.0) 64 (62, 67)
 Unskilled & Other (V/Other) (ref) 81 (79, 83) (ref) 71 (69, 73) (ref) 62 (60, 65)
Grandparent’s Social Class
 Professional (I) −0.4 (1.9) 84 (80, 87) 0.4 (1.7) 73 (69, 76) −1.2 (1.9) 65 (61, 69)
 Managerial-technical (II) −0.5 (1.2) 84 (81, 86) 1.1 (0.9) 73 (71, 75) −0.3 (1.2) 66 (64, 68)
 Skilled non-manual (III-NM) −0.4 (1.4) 84 (82, 87) 0.5 (1.2) 73 (70, 75) −0.4 (1.5) 66 (63, 69)
 Skilled-manual (III-M) −0.5 (1.0) 84 (81, 86) −0.2 (0.8) 72 (70, 74) −1.6 (1.0) 65 (63, 67)
 Partly skilled (IV) −0.3 (1.0) 84 (81, 86) −0.1 (0.8) 72 (70, 74) −0.9 (1.0) 65 (63, 68)
 Unskilled & Other (V/Other) (ref) 84 (81, 87) (ref) 72 (70, 74) (ref) 66 (64, 69)
Mother’s education (Did stay at school after min. Leaving age?)
 Did not stay-16 years −3.0 (1.6) 82 (80, 84) −1.7 (1.4) 71 (70, 73) −2.2 (1.7) 64 (62, 66)
 Did stay-16 years −1.7 (1.7) 84 (81, 86) 0.1 (1.4) 73 (71, 75) −0.6 (1.7) 66 (63, 68)
 Did stay-16 to 18 years −1.0 (1.6) 84 (82, 87) −1.1 (1.4) 72 (70, 74) 0.2 (1.7) 66 (64, 69)
 Did stay-19 or more years (ref) 85 (82, 89) (ref) 73 (70, 76) (ref) 66 (63, 70)
Father’s education (Did stay at school after min. Leaving age?)
 Did not stay-16 years −2.3 (1.4) 82 (80, 85) 0.9 (1.2) 73 (71, 74) −2.4 (1.5) 64 (62, 67)
 Did stay-16 years −1.7 (1.4) 83 (81, 85) 0.5 (1.3) 72 (70, 74) −2.4 (1.5) 64 (62, 67)
 Did stay-16 to 18 years 0.3 (1.5) 85 (83, 87) 1.3 (1.2) 73 (71, 75) −0.6 (1.5) 66 (64, 69)
 Did stay-19 or more years (ref) 85 (82, 88) (ref) 72 (69, 74) (ref) 67 (64, 70)
Receipt of free school meals by any child in the household
 No 3.4 (0.8) 86 (83, 88) 1.9 (0.7) 73 (71, 75) 2.7 (0.8) 67 (65, 69)
 Yes (ref) 82 (80, 84) (ref) 71 (70, 73) (ref) 64 (62, 66)
Experienced family financial hardships in childhood
 Never 2.6 (1.4) 86 (84, 88) 4.6 (1.2) 75 (73, 76) 5.1 (1.4) 68 (66, 70)
 Once −0.3 (1.4) 83 (81, 85) 2.4 (1.2) 72 (71, 74) 1.8 (1.4) 65 (63, 67)
 Twice or more (ref) 83 (80, 86) (ref) 70 (67, 73) (ref) 63 (60, 66)
Experienced overcrowding in childhood
 Never 2.8 (1.2) 85 (83, 88) 1.8 (1.0) 73 (71, 75) 1.1 (1.2) 66 (64, 68)
 Once 0.8 (1.3) 84 (81, 86) 1.2 (1.1) 72 (70, 74) 0.6 (1.3) 65 (63, 68)
 Twice 1.0 (1.5) 84 (81, 86) 1.8 (1.2) 73 (71, 75) 0.9 (1.5) 66 (63, 68)
 Three times or more (ref) 83 (80, 86) (ref) 71 (69, 74) (ref) 65 (62, 68)
Access to household amenitiesa
 Shared or no sole use 1.1 (2.1) 86 (81, 90) 1.6 (1.8) 74 (71, 78) 1.4 (2.1) 68 (64, 73)
 Sole use of 1 −2.7 (1.9) 82 (78, 86) −2.5 (1.6) 70 (67, 74) −4.6 (1.9) 62 (58, 66)
 Sole use of 2 −1.4 (1.4) 83 (80, 86) −0.8 (1.2) 72 (69, 75) −2.3 (1.4) 65 (62, 68)
 Sole use of 3 (ref) 85 (83, 86) (ref) 73 (72, 74) (ref) 67 (65, 68)
  1. aAccess to household amenities: indoor toilet, bathroom, kitchen
  2. SE standard error, ref reference category