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Table 1 Descriptive information of the CRELES Costa Rican elderly at baseline: 2004–2006 (weighted estimates)

From: Projected impact of diabetes on the Costa Rican healthcare system

Characteristic, n = 2827 unless otherwise noted Elderly populationa
Total Non- diabetic Diabetic
Sociodemographics
Education: % with complete primary, 49,0 49,6 46,8
Low income, 2799 40,6 40,7 40,2
Sex
  Male 47,5 49,8 38,8***
  Female 52,5 50,3 61,2***
Age
  60–69 yrs 53,8 53,5 54,7**
  70–79 yrs 31,6 30,6 35,3***
  80+ 14,7 15,9 10,0***
Risk factors
Waist circumference, 2632
  Normal 31,7 35,7 16,7***
  Increased risk of metabolic complications 23,2 23,7 21,3
  Substantially increased risk of metabolic complications 45,1 40,7 62,0***
Body Mass Index, 2698
  Underweight 3,3 4,0 0,6***
  Normal 28,5 31,4 17,2***
  Overweight 42,1 42,1 42,2**
  Obese 26,1 22,5 40,0***
Behavioral health risks
Smoking, 2810
  Never 35,7 36,0 34,7
  Former active or passive smoker 38,9 39,9 35,2**
  Current passive smoker 13,8 13,1 16,5*
  Current active smoker 11,6 11,0 13,7*
Alcohol,2809
  Never 34,5 34,5 34,6
  Former alcohol drinker 29,7 30,9 24,9***
  Current alcohol drinker 35,8 34,6 40,4***
Calorie daily consumption > =3000, 2819 12,3 13,0 9,8
Regular physical activity 31,3 33,8 22,0***
Geriatric Syndromes
Polypharmacy 2219 34,1 27,1 53,7***
Functional dependency, 2822 11,8 11,6 12,7
Geriatric depression, 1769    
  Normal 81,9 83,2 77,3*
  Mildly depressed 11,8 11,1 14,3
  Depressed 6,3 5,7 8,3*
Mean cost of health care (2011 USD)
Cost of hospitalization 827 745 1124**
  Age
   60–69 yrs 570 493 841**
   70–79 yrs 952 852 1280**
   80+ 1634 1503 2424
Cost of outpatient care 337 319 404**
  Age
   60–69 yrs 328 308 398**
   70–79 yrs 347 328 409**
   80+ 355 343 427**
Health condition
 Chronic morbidity
  Hypertension, 2823 64,5 60,0 81,8***
  Dyslipidemiab, 2656 51,2 50,2 55,3***
   Elevated Total/HDL cholesterol ratio, 2654 28,5 27,8 30,8*
   Elevated triglycerides, 2573 44,9 44,2 47,6***
Cardiovascular disease
  Myocardial infarction 4,6 3,7 7,9***
  Ischemic heart attack (no infarction) 12,0 10,9 16,4**
  Stroke 3,8 3,4 5,7*
Cancer 5,8 5,2 8,0
Lung disease 16,6 15,6 20,5**
  1. Significance levels: ***: p < 0.01, **: p < 0.05, *: p < 0.10
  2. aChi-square tests were used for non-diabetic vs. diabetic stratum comparisons of categorical variables. T-tests were used for continuous variables
  3. bDyslipidemia refers to any or both: hypercholesterolemia (Total/HDL ratio) and hypertriglyceridemia