Skip to main content

Table 2 Final Multivariable Model Results

From: A model of disparities: risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection

  OR 95% CI p-value
Sociodemographic
Age
 18–29
  < 18 0.33 [0.22–0.49] <.0001
 30–39 0.88 [0.73–1.05] 0.1574
 40–49 1.27 [1.06–1.52] 0.011
 50–59 1.69 [1.41–2.02] <.0001
 60–69 1.65 [1.36–2.01] <.0001
 70–79 1.59 [1.24–2.05] 0.0003
 80+ 1.64 [1.24–2.17] 0.0005
Gender
 Female
 Male 1.32 [1.21–1.44] <.0001
Education
 Education < 12 years 1.02 [1.01–1.14] 0.0435
 Employment
 Student
 Employed 1.85 [1.39–2.46] <.0001
 Not Employed 1.41 [1.05–1.91] 0.024
 Retired 2.06 [1.54–2.76] <.0001
 Unknown 1.37 [1–1.87] 0.0494
Race
 White
 American Indian | Alaska Native 0.63 [0.36–1.12] 0.1156
 Asian 1.43 [1.18–1.72] 0.0002
 Black| African American 1.51 [1.25–1.83] <.0001
 Native Hawaiian | Pacific Islander 1.02 [0.66–1.57] 0.9438
 Unknown 1.34 [1.18–1.52] <.0001
Ethnicity
 Other Ethnic Groups
 Hispanic or Latino 2.07 [1.77–2.41] <.0001
Religious Affiliation
 Agnostic
 Christian 1.28 [1.15–1.43] <.0001
 Other Religion 1.01 [0.77–1.24] 0.1453
 Unknown 1.10 [0.97–1.25] 0.8752
Relationship
 Single
 Divorce or Legally Separated 1.08 [0.93–1.26] 0.3293
 Married or Significant Other 1.12 [1.01–1.25] 0.0357
 Unknown 0.96 [0.74–1.24] 0.7468
Language
 English
 Sino-Tibetan 1.98 [1.38–2.84] 0.0002
 Spanish 1.60 [1.31–1.94] <.0001
 Other Languages 2.09 [1.7–2.57] <.0001
Clinical
Body Mass Index
 Normal
 Underweight 0.80 [0.54–1.2] 0.2857
 Moderately Obese 1.25 [1.08–1.45] 0.0033
 Overweight 1.28 [1.12–1.46] 0.0003
 Severely Obese 1.45 [1.21–1.73] <.0001
 Very Severely Obese 1.58 [1.31–1.91] <.0001
 Unknown 0.99 [0.84–1.16] 0.8867
Number of Chronic Conditions
 0
 1–2 0.83 [0.74–0.93] 0.001
 3–4 0.63 [0.54–0.74] <.0001
 5+ 0.55 [0.44–0.69] <.0001
Clinical Diagnosis    
 Diagnosis of Diabetes 1.40 [1.22–1.61] <.0001
 Diagnosis of Kidney Disease 1.03 [1.01–2.3] 0.0385
 Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS 1.43 [1.03–2.63] 0.0252
 Diagnosis of Dementia 2.01 [1.61–2.51] <.0001
Polypharmacy
 0 Prescriptions
 1–9 Prescriptions 0.76 [0.68–0.86] <.0001
 10–19 Prescriptions 0.60 [0.5–0.71] <.0001
 20–29 Prescriptions 0.43 [0.32–0.59] <.0001
 30+ Prescriptions 0.42 [0.26–0.66] 0.0002
Mental Health and Substance Use
 History of Illicit Drug Use 0.63 [0.53–0.77] <.0001
 History of Tobacco Use 0.46 [0.38–0.54] <.0001
 Diagnosis of Serious Persistent Mental Illness 0.77 [0.65–0.92] 0.003
 Diagnosis of Substance Use Disorder 0.70 [0.56–0.87] 0.001
Primary Care Provider Affiliation
 Internal Primary Care Provider
 External Primary Care Provider 1.23 [1.1–1.37] 0.0004
 Unknown Primary Care Provider 1.27 [1.11–1.46] 0.0005
 Electronic Communication through the EMR 0.72 [0.66–0.8] <.0001
Symptoms
 Symptoms of Fever 2.39 [2.15–2.65] <.0001
 Symptoms of Cough 1.44 [1.28–1.62] <.0001
 Shortness of Breath 1.34 [1.21–1.49] <.0001
 Symptoms of Chills 1.40 [1.09–1.79] 0.0086
 Myalgia 1.80 [1.47–2.2] <.0001
Environmental
Region
 Oregon
 Alaska 1.31 [1–1.7] 0.0469
 Puget Sound 2.83 [2.44–3.28] <.0001
 Southern California 2.39 [2.06–2.78] <.0001
 Washington Montana 1.49 [1.29–1.73] <.0001
Age-Stratified Communal Living
 Non-Communal Living
 Adult Community 1.30 [1.07–1.58] 0.0082
 Adult and Youth 1.07 [0.95–1.21] 0.2835
 Multigenerational 1.07 [0.9–1.28] 0.4563
 Senior Living 1.69 [1.23–2.32] 0.0011
 Other 1.12 [0.77–1.64] 0.5492
 Financial Insecurity 1.10 [1.01–1.25] 0.0392
 Housing Insecurity 1.32 [1.16–1.5] <.0001
 Transportation Insecurity 1.11 [1.02–1.23] 0.0285
 Low Air Quality 1.01 [1–1.04] 0.0502