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Table 3 Factors associated with health care utilization among multimorbid patients from public and private facilities

From: Magnitude and determinants of multimorbidity and health care utilization among patients attending public versus private primary care: a cross-sectional study from Odisha, India

CharacteristicsPublic (n = 261)Private(n = 200)
Number of hospital visits
Adjusted IRRa
[95% CI]
Number of medicines taken
Adjusted IRRa
[95% CI]
Number of hospital visits
Adjusted IRRa
[95% CI]
Number of medicines taken
Adjusted IRRa
[95% CI]
Age Group (in years)
 18–29ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 30–393.85 [2.05–7.24]*1.23 [0.58–2.60]1.42 [0.44–4.52]1.04 [0.37–2.92]
 40–493.56 [1.94–6.56]*1.38 [0.63–3.02]2.13 [0.60–7.67]1.36 [0.52–3.53]
 50–593.63 [2.16–6.09]*1.28 [0.58–2.83]1.69 [0.54–5.25]1.36 [0.52–3.57]
 60–693.84 [2.23–6.59]*1.43 [0.67–3.07]1.68 [0.44–6.46]1.34 [0.49–3.62]
 > =702.98 [1.62–5.49]*1.60 [0.75–3.41]1.96 [0.55–6.96]1.10 [0.40–3.02]
Gender
 MaleReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Female1.08 [0.72–1.61]0.98 [0.70–1.37]0.92 [0.56–1.51]0.85 [0.62–1.15]
Ethnicity
 AboriginalReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Non-aboriginal1.24 [0.84–1.83]1.18 [1.02–1.69]*0.81 [0.53–1.26]1.78 [1.04–3.02]*
Socio Economic Status
 Below Poverty LineReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Above Poverty Line0.99 [0.73–1.34]1.04 [0.80–1.36]0.95 [0.56–1.61]1.36 [1.01–1.86]*
Highest Education
 No SchoolingReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Primary1.57 [1.13–2.18]*0.74 [0.54–1.02]1.15 [0.7–1.89]0.99 [0.71–1.38]
 Secondary and above1.29 [0.80–2.09]1.05 [0.72–1.52]1.70 [1.01–3.69]*0.92 [0.62–1.38]
Marital Status
 SingleReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Married0.85 [0.59–1.21]0.79 [0.52–1.21]0.69 [0.30–1.57]0.80 [0.50–1.28]
  1. CI Confidence interval, IRR Incidence Rate Ratio
  2. *P value < 0.05
  3. aMultivariable Zero inflated negative binomial regression. Each variable was adjusted for other covariates in the table
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