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Table 4 Odds ratios of household food insecurity by homeownership status and housing asset level* among households of all incomes (n = 10,815)

From: Homeownership status and risk of food insecurity: examining the role of housing debt, housing expenditure and housing asset using a cross-sectional population-based survey of Canadian households

Independent variableUnadjusted modelCovariates† + after-tax income
OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Homeownership status & housing asset level
 Owners with mortgage & low housing asset0.85 (0.53–1.34)0.74 (0.44–1.27)
 Owners with mortgage & higher housing asset0.29 (0.23–0.36)0.48 (0.36–0.64)
 Mortgage-free owners with low housing asset0.39 (0.21–0.75)0.50 (0.27–0.93)
 Mortgage-free owners with higher housing asset0.07 (0.05–0.11)0.18 (0.11–0.27)
  1. aOR, adjusted odds ratios; OR, unadjusted odds ratios; CI, confidence interval
  2. Note: The logistic regression models used sampling weights to obtain population-based OR and aOR; the 95% CI are calculated using bootstrapped standard errors estimated with 1000 bootstrap weights provided by Statistics Canada to account for the complex survey design. Odds ratios in bold are significantly different from 1.00 (p values < 0.05)
  3. * Low housing asset defined as home value ≤$120,000, representing the lowest decile of home value; higher housing asset defined as home value >$120,000
  4. † Covariates include household type, number of children < 18 years of age, presence of household member with disability, age of head of household, household education, main income source, region of residence and population centre size