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Table 3 Odds ratios of household food insecurity by homeownership status among lower-income households (n = 5547)

From: Homeownership status and risk of food insecurity: examining the role of housing debt, housing expenditure and housing asset using a cross-sectional population-based survey of Canadian households

Independent variablesUnadjusted modelCovariates* + after-tax incomeCovariates* + after-housing incomeCovariates* + housing-to-income ratio
OR (95%CI)aOR (95%CI)aOR (95%CI)aOR (95%CI)
Homeownership status
 Owners with mortgage0.47 (0.36–0.60)a0.53 (0.38–0.74)a0.41 (0.30–0.56)a0.36 (0.26–0.49)a
 Mortgage-free owners0.16 (0.10–0.24)b0.26 (0.16–0.41)b0.31 (0.19–0.50)a0.31 (0.19–0.50)a
After-tax income†0.93 (0.91–0.95)
After-housing income†0.94 (0.92–0.96)
Housing-to-income ratio†1.10 (1.05–1.14)
  1. aOR, adjusted odds ratios; OR, unadjusted odds ratios; CI, confidence interval
  2. Note: The logistic regression models used sampling weights to obtain population-based OR and aOR; the 95% CI are calculated using bootstrapped standard errors estimated with 1000 bootstrap weights provided by Statistics Canada to account for the complex survey design. Odds ratios in bold are significantly different from 1.00 (p values < 0.05)
  3. a, b Based on comparisons of odds ratios from the same regression model (same column), odds ratios with different superscripts differ significantly from each other (p values < 0.05), while odds ratios with the same superscript do not differ (p values ≥ 0.05). See Additional file 1: Table S5 for the odds ratios for mortgage-free owners versus owners with a mortgage
  4. * Covariates include household type, number of children < 18 years of age, presence of household member with disability, age of head of household, household education, main income source, region of residence and population centre size
  5. † Odds ratios for $1000 increase in after-tax or after-housing income and for 5% increase in housing-to-income ratio