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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by household food insecurity status

From: Homeownership status and risk of food insecurity: examining the role of housing debt, housing expenditure and housing asset using a cross-sectional population-based survey of Canadian households

CharacteristicsAllFood secureFood insecureP value*
n = 10,815n = 9451n = 1364 
Homeownership status, %   < 0.0001
 Renters26.822.156.4 
 Owners with mortgage
  Low housing asset (≤$120,000)3.42.96.2§ 
  Higher housing asset (>$120,000)34.335.626.0 
 Mortgage-free owners
  Low housing asset (≤$120,000)4.74.74.7§ 
  Higher housing asset (>$120,000)30.934.76.6 
After-tax income†, mean (SD)$43,506 (33136)$46,143 (34453)$26,606 (16036)< 0.0001
Housing expenditure†, mean (SD)$8584 (5498)$8658 (5699)$8108 (4063)0.014
After-housing income†, mean (SD)$34,922 (32256)$37,485 (33595)$18,498 (14879)< 0.0001
Housing-to-income ratio, mean (SD)25.0% (17.2)23.2% (16.0)36.8% (19.5)< 0.0001
Age of head of household, %   < 0.0001
  < 308.67.614.9 
 30 to < 4017.316.423.0 
 40 to < 5021.820.728.8 
 50 to < 6021.121.617.9 
 60 to < 7015.917.18.7 
  ≥ 7015.316.66.8 
Household structure, %   < 0.0001
 Unattached, living alone28.126.737.3 
 Couple, living alone32.234.914.8 
 Couple with children‡33.032.933.3 
 Lone parent‡6.85.514.6 
Number of children < 18, %   < 0.0001
 072.173.662.6 
 111.410.814.9 
 2 or more16.515.622.5 
Household member with disability¶, %   < 0.0001
 Yes21.219.532.3 
 No78.880.567.7 
Household education (highest level), %   < 0.0001
 High school diploma or less29.627.245.3 
 Post-secondary40.139.742.5 
 University degree30.333.112.2 
Main source of income, %   < 0.0001
 Wages/salaries or self-employment67.168.260.0 
 EI or workers’ compensation2.41.58.5§ 
 Seniors’ benefits or pension23.425.112.3 
 Social assistance2.30.9§11.1 
 Other sources4.94.38.1 
Region of residence, %   0.003
 Atlantic7.57.39.0 
 Quebec26.126.424.4 
 Ontario36.435.641.7 
 Prairies17.417.814.7 
 British Columbia12.612.910.4 
Population centre size, %   0.031
 Rural (< 1000)11.912.29.7 
 Small (1000 to < 100,000)20.920.225.5 
 Medium (100,000 to < 500,000)17.417.318.0 
 Large (≥500,000)49.950.346.8 
  1. EI, Employment insurance
  2. Column percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding
  3. * p values based on the Rao-Scott F adjusted chi-square statistic for categorical variables and the adjusted Wald test for differences in the means of continuous variables
  4. † Adjusted for household size by dividing by the square root of household size
  5. ‡The presence children in these households reflects the familial relationship between the members of the household, and the children may be of all ages
  6. ¶ Presence of household member with disability based on households reporting that one member’s amount or kind of activity at home, at work, at school or in other activities was sometimes or often reduced by a physical/mental condition or health problem [38]
  7. § Coefficient of variation greater than 16.6%, indicating that the estimate is associated with high sampling variability