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Table 2 Factors associated with NHIS membership in the Kassena-Nankana East and Kassena-Nankana West districts in 2012, N = 39,262

From: The state of enrollment on the National Health Insurance Scheme in rural Ghana after eight years of implementation

FactorsCategories% currently insuredOdds ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
UnadjustedAdjusted
Age (years)< 1853.21.3 (1.2–1.5)1.2 (1.1–1.4)s
18–5948.11.1 (1.0–1.2)0.8 (0.8–0.9)
60–6946.91.0 (0.9–1.2)1.0 (0.9–1.1)
70+46.21.0 (base)1.0 (base)
GenderFemale53.51.3 (1.3–1.4)1.4 (1.3–1.5)s
Male46.31.0 (base)1.0 (base)
LocationRural46.71.0 (base)1.0 (base)
Urban77.84.0 (3.7–4.3)1.4 (1.3–1.5)s
Household size153.91.0 (base)1.0 (base)
2–452.81.0 (0.8–1.1)1.0 (0.9–1.2)
5+49.10.8 (0.7–1.0)1.0 (0.9–1.2) n
EducationNo formal42.81.0 (base)1.0 (base)
Primary45.31.1 (1.1–1.2)1.0 (0.9–1.0)n
High School56.21.7 (1.6–1.8)1.4 (1.3–1.5)s
Tertiary77.64.6 (3.9–5.4)2.4 (2.0–2.9)s
 Under schooling age*58.51.9 (1.8–2.0)1.4 (1.3–1.5)s
EthnicityKassena61.32.9 (2.8–3.1)2.3 (2.2–2.4)s
Nankani35.11.0 (base)1.0 (base)
Others68.44.0 (3.6–4.5)2.6 (2.3–3.0)s
ReligionChristianity59.02.4 (2.3–2.5)1.5 (1.5–1.6)s
Traditional37.91.0 (base)1.0 (base)
Islam67.63.4 (3.1–3.8)1.2 (1.1–1.4)s
Wealth quintilesPoorest41.71.0 (base)1.0 (base)
Moderately poor42.51.0 (1.0–1.1)1.0 (1.0–1.1)
Average44.21.1 (1.1–1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.1)n
Moderately rich60.32.1 (2.0–2.3)1.8 (1.7–1.9)s
Richest80.55.8 (5.3–6.3)2.9 (2.6–3.2)s
Recent illnessYes53.21.0 (base)1.0 (base)
No49.80.9 (0.8–1.0)0.8 (0.7–0.9)s
  1. *Represents children yet to attain the school-going age of 6 years
  2. sSignificant in both bivariate and multivariate analyses
  3. nNot significant in the multivariate analysis