Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 1 Health services utilization and background characteristics

From: The effects of poverty reduction policy on health services utilization among the rural poor: a quasi-experimental study in central and western rural China

Variables, n (%) or mean (SD)Total
(n = 6091)
Beneficiaries
(n = 1069)
Non-beneficiaries
(n = 5022)
P-value
Dependent variables outpatient services utilization within two weeks
 Any outpatient visit0.054
  Yes461 (18.84)96 (22.12)365 (18.13) 
  No1986 (81.16)338 (77.88)1648 (81.87) 
 Outpatient institutions   0.310
  Village clinic214 (44.12)35 (33.65)179 (46.98) 
  Town health center99 (20.41)27 (25.96)72 (18.90) 
  Public hospital above county-level142 (29.28)38 (36.54)104 (27.30) 
  Private hospital or clinic30 (6.19)4 (3.85)26 (6.82) 
Inpatient services utilization of patients within one year
 Any inpatient visit   < 0.001
  Yes1188 (19.50)276 (25.82)912 (18.16) 
  No4903 (80.50)793 (74.18)4110 (81.84) 
 Inpatient institutions   0.274
  Town health center351 (27.04)83 (27.76)268 (26.83) 
  Public hospital of county-level742 (57.16)179 (59.87)563 (56.36) 
  Public hospital above city-level164 (12.63)28 (9.36)136 (13.61) 
  Private hospital or other institutions41 (3.16)9 (3.01)32 (3.20) 
Control variables
 Area   < 0.001
  Sinan County3090 (50.73)754 (70.53)2336 (46.52) 
  Dangyang County3001 (49.27)315 (29.47)2686 (53.48) 
 Distance between residence and nearest health services institutions (km)   < 0.001
   ≤ 13037 (49.90)503(47.14)2534(50.49) 
  1~21913 (31.43)292(27.37)1621(32.30) 
  2~3743 (12.21)182(17.06)561(11.18) 
  3~4158 (2.60)25(2.34)133(2.65) 
   > 4235 (3.86)65(6.09)170(3.39) 
 Household per capita annual income level   < 0.001
  Low income group1218 (20.00)368 (34.42)850 (16.93) 
  Lower income group1219 (20.01)243 (22.73)976 (19.43) 
  Middle income group1210 (19.87)193 (18.05)1017 (20.25) 
  Higher income group1226 (20.13)152 (14.22)1074 (21.39) 
  Highest income group1218 (20.00)113 (10.57)1105 (22.00) 
 Gender   0.424
  Male2992 (49.17)537 (50.28)2455 (48.93) 
  Female3093 (50.83)531 (49.72)2562 (51.07) 
 Age group   < 0.001
  15~24489 (8.03)107 (10.01)382 (7.61) 
  25~441070 (17.57)164 (15.34)906 (18.04) 
  45~642856 (46.89)454 (42.47)2402 (47.83) 
   ≥ 651676 (27.52)344 (32.18)1332 (26.52) 
 Marital status   < 0.001
  Unmarried601 (9.91)156(14.70)445(8.89) 
  Married4851 (79.98)768(72.38)4083(81.59) 
  Divorced54 (0.89)15(1.41)39(0.78) 
  Widowed548 (9.04)116(10.93)432(8.63) 
  Other11 (0.18)6(0.57)5(0.10) 
 Education   < 0.001
  Illiteracy1062 (17.48)253(23.73)809(16.14) 
  Elementary school or junior high school4038 (66.45)691(64.82)3347(66.79) 
  High school or secondary vocational and technical school803 (13.21)90(8.44)713(14.23) 
  University degree174 (2.86)32(3.00)142(2.83) 
 Severity of disease within two weeks   < 0.001
  Not at all serious30 (1.22)4 (0.92)26 (1.29) 
  Not too serious386 (15.74)47 (10.83)339 (16.84) 
  Generally serious934 (38.08)125 (28.80)809 (40.19) 
  Relatively serious989 (40.32)223 (51.38)760 (37.75) 
  Very serious114 (4.65)35 (8.06)79 (3.92) 
The utility index of HRQoL0.854 (0.002)0.793 (0.006)0.866 (0.002)< 0.001
  1. Note: In the statistical analysis of dependent variables, for the variable ‘any inpatient visit’, we used an individual as an observation case. For other dependent variables, we used an outpatient or inpatient record as an observation case