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Table 1 Descriptive stats for each year and for the pooled sample

From: Trends in horizontal inequity in access to public health care services by immigrant condition in Spain (2006–2017)

Type var.VariableMean (SD)
2006
(N = 29,478)
Mean (SD)
2011
(N = 20,884)
Mean (SD)
2016
(N = 22,903)
Mean (SD)
2006–2016
(N = 73,265)
p-value*
Dep. VarPrimary_care0.32030.29160.28460.3009< 0.001
Specialist_care0.13070.13120.11010.1244< 0.001
Emergencies0.25920.24080.26580.2560< 0.001
Hospitalisation0.09120.08160.08010.0850< 0.001
Demographic variablesFemale0.60500.54130.54160.5670< 0.001
Age 16–250.08380.08260.07030.0792< 0.001
Age 26–350.15860.14220.10570.1374
Age 36–450.20100.18840.18380.1920
Age 46–550.16240.16830.18120.1700
Age 56–650.14050.15010.16690.1515
Age 66–750.13520.12980.14440.1365
Age76–850.09830.10690.10920.1042
Age more than 850.02020.03180.03840.0292
Living in pair0.61490.58960.54460.5857< 0.001
Health state variablesHealth bad-very bad0.10470.09430.09700.0993< 0.001
Health fair0.27450.22810.24110.2508
Health good0.48010.50120.48280.4870
Health very good0.14070.17640.17910.1629
Hypertension0.24930.25810.27260.2591< 0.001
Stroke0.02480.02260.02310.02370.230
Heart0.07110.07400.08490.0763< 0.001
Diabetes0.07310.08890.09890.0857< 0.001
Cholesterol0.18430.21770.23850.2108< 0.001
Tumor0.03240.03530.05000.0388< 0.001
Mental0.16850.13600.15470.1549< 0.001
Rest chronics2.0445 (2.3064)1.7700 (2.1561)2.1319 (2.5000)1.9936 (2.3324)< 0.001
Limitation 2 weeks0.15740.12220.14860.1446< 0.001
Accidents 12 months0.10300.03820.04210.0655< 0.001
GHQ121.6194 (2.6429)1.5935 (2.7639)1.4490 (2.7358)1.5579 (2.7087)< 0.001
Continent of birthNative Spanish0.91700.91400.90270.9116< 0.001
Economic immig.0.06540.07070.08200.0721
Eastern Europe0.01660.01450.01640.0139
Asian0.00220.00340.00460.0033
Latin American0.03720.03850.04140.0389
North Africa0.01200.01120.01530.0128
Rest Africa0.00220.00320.00420.0031
Non-econ immig.0.01770.01530.01540.0163
Socioeconomic variablesNo studies0.13930.14690.11960.1353< 0.001
Primary studies0.34720.12690.19240.2358
Secondary studies0.36180.57600.50500.4678
University studies0.15170.15030.18300.1611
Low social class0.13870.15040.14410.1437< 0.001
Medium-low SC0.41400.47920.48590.4549
Medium-high SC0.25720.18680.19050.2164
High social class0.19010.18360.17960.1850
Employed0.44800.41840.43310.4349< 0.001
Unemployed0.06240.12590.10860.0950
Retired0.27500.25470.28850.2734
Inactive0.21460.20100.16980.1967
OtherSmall municipality0.55660.49550.49920.5212< 0.001
  1. * Chi-square test for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables