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Table 2 Multilevel logistic regression estimates of reporting good health

From: Residential exposure to natural outdoor environments and general health among older adults in Shanghai, China

Effects and variablesModel 1aModel 2bModel 3c
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Fixed variables
 The percentage of surrounding green spaces within 1 km buffer 1.75 (1.15–2.65) ** 
 The percentage of surrounding blue spaces within 1 km buffer 2.54 (0.49–13.12) 
 Logarithm of proximity to the nearest green spaces  0.93 (0.89–0.97) **
 Logarithm of proximity to the nearest blue spaces  0.90 (0.84–0.98) *
 Social deprivation index1.05 (0.99–1.10)1.01 (0.95–1.07)1.00 (0.94–1.06)
 Annual average PM2.5 concentrations1.00 (0.97–1.04)1.00 (0.97–1.04)1.00 (0.97–1.03)
 Males (ref: females)1.50 (1.31–1.71) ***1.48 (1.30–1.70) ***1.48 (1.30–1.70) ***
 Age (ref: 60–69)
  70–790.21 (0.17–0.25) ***0.21 (0.18–0.25) ***0.21 (0.18–0.25) ***
  > =800.08 (0.06–0.11) ***0.08 (0.06–0.11) ***0.08 (0.06–0.11) ***
 Single, divorced, or widowed (ref: married)0.65 (0.53–0.80) ***0.65 (0.53–0.80) ***0.65 (0.53–0.80) ***
 Living alone (ref: no)0.88 (0.63–1.23)0.91 (0.65–1.28)0.91 (0.65–1.28)
 Education (ref: no schooling)
  Elementary school or junior high school1.04 (0.83–1.31)1.10 (0.87–1.39)1.11 (0.88–1.40)
  Senior high school0.91 (0.68–1.22)0.99 (0.74–1.33)1.00 (0.75–1.34)
  College or above1.01 (0.74–1.39)1.10 (0.80–1.52)1.12 (0.82–1.54)
 Non-local hukou (ref: local hukou)1.41 (1.20–1.67) ***1.44 (1.22–1.71) ***1.44 (1.22–1.70) ***
 Housing area per capita1.00 (0.99–1.01)1.00 (0.99–1.01)1.00 (1.00–1.01)
 Housing construction time after 1980 (ref: before 1980)0.69 (0.53–0.90) **0.72 (0.55–0.94) *0.73 (0.56–0.95) *
 Housing facilities (ref: none, one, two and three)1.09 (0.84–1.43)1.04 (0.79–1.36)1.03 (0.78–1.35)
Random variables
 Var (neighbourhood-level constant)3.82 (3.23–4.52) ***3.81 (3.22–4.50) ***3.80 (3.22–4.49) ***
 ICC0.540.540.54
 Number of neighbourhoods335433543354
 Number of individuals796279627962
 AIC9273.959269.769260.74
  1. Note: aModel 1 included social deprivation index, annual average PM2.5 concentration, age, sex, marital status, hukou status, education, living alone, housing area per capita, housing construction time and housing facilities
  2. bModel 2 included variables in Model 1, the percentage of surrounding green spaces within 1 km buffer and the percentage of surrounding blue spaces within 1 km buffer to Model 1
  3. cModel 3 included variables in Model 1 and the logarithm of proximity to the nearest green spaces and the logarithm of proximity to the nearest blue spaces to Model 1
  4. OR odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals in brackets; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001