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Table 1 Summary statistics of variables

From: Residential exposure to natural outdoor environments and general health among older adults in Shanghai, China

VariablesWhole sample (n = 7962)Reported good health (n = 3585)Reported fair or poor health (n = 4377)p-value
 Self-reported health (%)
  Fair or poor54.97   
Predictors (neighbourhood-level variables)
 Percentage of surrounding green spaces within 1 km buffer (%)16.41 (27.67)18.27 (28.38)14.88 (26.98)0.000a
 Percentage of surrounding blue spaces within 1 km buffer (%)1.76 (5.61)1.84 (5.75)1.69 (5.50)0.227a
 Proximity to the nearest green spaces (metre)775.98 (702.45)715.42 (698.82)825.59 (701.60)0.000a
 Proximity to the nearest blue spaces (metre)2108.24 (1512.03)2081.94 (1498.20)2129.79 (1523.09)0.160a
  Social deprivation index−0.31 (1.91)−0.27 (2.02)−0.34 (1.80)0.146a
  Annual average PM2.5 concentrations (μg/m3)51.81 (2.59)51.83 (3.17)51.80 (1.98)0.596a
 Sex (%)
 Age (years) (%)
  > =8015.766.6123.26 
 Marital status (%)
  Single, divorced, or widowed22.7014.6429.290.000b
 Hukou status (%)
  Local hukou68.1263.5771.850.000b
  Non-local hukou31.8836.4328.15 
 Education (%)
  No schooling14.4610.3817.800.000b
  Elementary school or junior high school55.1558.0252.80 
  Senior high school16.6817.1016.34 
  College or above13.7114.5013.06 
 Living alone (%)
 Housing area per capita (m2)29.17 (22.83)30.82 (24.03)27.84 (21.70)0.000a
 Housing construction time (%)
  Before 198015.0211.5817.840.000b
  After 198084.9888.4282.16 
 Housing facilities (%)
  None, one, two or three types of facilities13.2611.8385.560.001b
  Four types of facilities86.7488.1714.44 
  1. Note: results are presented as proportion for categorical variables and as mean (standard errors) for continuous variables
  2. at-Test statistics. bPearson’s chi-squares statistics