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Table 1 HIV testing by socio-economic status, Malawi DHS 2015–16

From: A method for measuring spatial effects on socioeconomic inequalities using the concentration index

 WomenTested (N = 5995)P-valuebMenP-value
Not tested (N = 1294)Not tested (N = 2666)Tested (N = 14,607)
Region
 northern181 (14)1023 (17.1) 478 (17.9)3121 (21.4)
 central450 (34.8)1770 (29.5) 1068 (40.1)5129 (35.1)
 southern663 (51.2)3202 (53.4)0.0001120 (42)6357 (43.5)0.000
Education
 no131 (10.1)747 (12.5) 266 (10)1635 (11.2)
 primary846 (65.4)3481 (58.1) 1740 (65.3)8961 (61.3)
 secondary300 (23.2)1513 (25.2) 637 (23.9)3611 (24.7)
 higher17 (1.3)254 (4.2)0.00023 (0.9)400 (2.7)0.000
Literacy
 Cannot read at al320 (24.7)1592 (26.6) 623 (23.4)3874 (26.5)
 Able to read only part144 (11.1)461 (7.7) 256 (9.6)1341 (9.2)
 Able to read whole sentence830 (64.1)3935 (65.6)0.0001787 (67)9392 (64.3)0.003
Wealth
 poorest326 (25.2)1497 (25.0) 342 (12.8)2114 (14.5)
 poorer274 (21.2)1053 (17.6) 436 (16.4)2666 (18.3)
 middle248 (19.2)1016 (16.9) 522 (19.6)2722 (18.6)
 richer212 (16.4)1113 (18.6) 570 (21.4)3002 (20.6)
 richest234 (18.1)1316 (22.0)0.000796 (29.9)4103 (28.1)0.011
Marriage
 No1139 (88)3775 (63.0) 1850 (69.4)1846 (12.6)
 married155 (12)2220 (37.0)0.000816 (30.6)12,761 (87.4)
Any STI last 12 montha
 No1284 (99.3)5805 (97.0) 2629 (98.6)14,202 (97.2)
 Yes9 (0.7)178 (3.0)0.00028 (1.1)372 (2.5)0.000
Genital sore/ulcera
 No1255 (97.1)5436 (90.9) 2560 (96)13,351 (91.4)
 Yes38 (2.9)545 (9.1)0.000100 (3.8)1226 (8.4)
Genital dischargea
 No1265 (98)5633 (94.1) 2592 (97.2)13,753 (94.2)
 Yes26 (2)351 (5.9)0.00068 (2.6)831 (5.7)0.000
  1. a: ‘don’t know’ was excluded
  2. b: P value was estimated using Chi-2 test