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Table 1 Distribution of women by predictors and caesarean section (CS) delivery, and crude odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of having CS delivery in univariable model

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in the use of caesarean section delivery in Ghana: a cross-sectional study using nationally representative data

Predictors N (%) CS delivery (%) Crude OR (95% CI) P-value
4294 (100%)
Maternal age < 0.0001
 15–24 years 923 (21.5) 6.6 ref.
 25–34 years 2026 (47.2) 11.5 2.42 (1.65, 3.55)
 35–49 years 1345 (31.3) 14.3 3.31 (2.39, 4.59)
Marital status 0.01
 Single 363 (8.5) 12.1 ref.
 Married 2801 (65.2) 11.9 1.52 (1.01, 2.28)
 Cohabitating 830 (19.3) 8.9 0.99 (0.62,1.60)
 Widow/Separated/Divorced 300 (7.0) 12.3 1.74 (0.84, 3.63)
Religion 0.06
 Traditional/other 324 (7.6) 5.6 ref.
 Islam 885 (20.6) 9.9 1.56 (0.69, 3.49)
 Christian 3085 (71.8) 12.4 1.97 (0.98, 3.96)
Ethnicity* < 0.0001
 Northern tribes 1796 (41.8) 7.5 ref.
 Akan 1643 (38.3) 15.2 2.19 (1.62, 2.96)
 Ewe 476 (11.1) 11.3 1.50 (0.99, 2.27)
 Ga 198 (4.6) 16.2 2.93 (1.68, 5.14)
 Other 180 (4.2) 10.0 1.65 (0.85, 3.21)
Parity < 0.0001
 1birth 935 (21.8) 16.6 ref.
 2 births 839 (19.5) 12.2 0.68 (0.51, 0.91)
  ≥ 3 births 2520 (58.7) 9.2 0.54 (0.41, 0.71)
Education < 0.0001
 No education 1419 (33.0) 6.1 ref.
 Primary 869 (20.2) 8.5 1.88 (1.15, 3.07)
 Secondary 1837 (42.8) 14.8 3.10 (2.25, 4.27)
 Higher 169 (4.0) 33.1 8.28 (5.11, 13.41)
Place of residence < 0.0001
 Rural 2516 (58.6) 7.3 ref.
 Urban 1778 (41.4) 17.1 2.55 (1.89, 3.43)
Wealth quintile < 0.0001
 Poorest 1318 (30.6) 5.0 ref.
 Poorer 923 (21.5) 7.2 1.56 (1.01, 2.41)
 Middle 812 (18.9) 11.1 2.67 (1.82, 3.92)
 Richer 685 (16.0) 16.5 4.21 (2.81, 6.30)
 Richest 556 (13.0) 27.5 8.12 (5.52, 11.94)
Working status 0.8
 Unemployed 886 (20.6) 11.0 ref.
 Employed 3408 (79.4) 11.4 1.03 (0.75, 1.43)
  1. Abbreviations: N number of observations, % percent, *N = 4293 due to missing values, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, ref. reference