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Table 1 Study characteristics including author, publication year, population, outcome, analytical approach, intersectional inequality and quality rating

From: Languishing in the crossroad? A scoping review of intersectional inequalities in mental health

Author and publ. YearPopulation (sample, age, setting and size)Outcome measureAnalytical approachIntersectional inequality (direction of association)Quality rating
Gender and Race/ethnicity
 Mair C., 2010 [34]Population sample > 60 yrs., US (n = 10 441)Symptom scale: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (depressive symptoms)Ordinary least squares regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (antagonistic)4/5
 Evans, C. R. and Erickson N., 2019 [31]Population sample, age wave 1: 15, wave 2: 28 yrs., US (n = 15 388)Symptom scale: CES-D (depressive symptoms)Linear regression, absolute measure inequalityExcess:
Female and Native
American (synergistic)
Female and Black (n.s)
Female and Latina (n.s)
Female and Asian/Pacific
Islander (n.s)
5/5
 Hardeman R., et al., 2015 [32]Medical students, US (n = 3 191)Symptom scale: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) (depressive symptoms)Generalized linear regression, relative measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
Symptom scale: PROMIS (anxiety symptoms) Excess (antagonistic)5/5
 Rosenfield S., 2012 [29]Data set 1: population sample 15–54 yrs., US (n = 5 877)Diagnostic interview: Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (antisocial personality disorder and conduct disorder)Logistic regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (synergistic)5/5
Diagnostic interview: CIDI (depression) Excess (n.s)5/5
Data set 2: State sample (New Jersey) US 15,18 and 21 yrs. (n = 1 308,)Symptom scale: Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-90R (antisocial problems) Excess (n.s)5/5
Symptom scale: HSCL-90R (depressive symptoms) Excess (n.s)5/5
 Roxburg S., 2009 [33]Population sample 18–64 yrs., US (n = 24 998)Symptom scale: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) (psychological distress)Ordinary least squares regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
Gender and Socioeconomic position
 Green M. J. and Benzeval M., 2011 [34]Age at baseline: 15, 35 and 55. Follow-up time: 20 yrs. Scottland, UK (n = 3846)Symptom scale: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (depressive symptoms)Logistic regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)3/5
Symptom scale: HADS (anxiety symptoms)Excess (synergistic)4/5
 Green M., et al., 2014 [35]Age at baseline: 36. Follow-up time: 20 yrs., Skottland, UK (n = 999)Symptom scale: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) -12 (depressive symptoms)Structural equation model with latent variables, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)4/5
 Gibson P. A., et al., 2016 [36]18–26 yrs. (n = 4302), USASymptom scale: CES-D (depressive symptoms)Nested negative binomial regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
 Ross C. E., and Mirowsky J., 2006 [37]Population sample, 18–95 yrs., US (n = 2 592)Symptom scale: CES-D (depressive symptoms)Ordinary least squares regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (synergistic)4/5
 Schieman S., 2002 [38]Workers 18–55 yrs., Canada (n = 994)Symptom scale: CES-D (depressive symptoms)Ordinary least squares regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (synergistic)5/5
Excess (n.s)
 Gustafsson P., et al. 2016 [16]National sample 18–84 yrs., Sweden (n = 25 585)Symptom scale: GHQ-12 (depressive symptoms)Analysis of variance (Aim 1) and
Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis (Aim 2), absolute measure of inequality
Joint (significant)5/5
Socioeconomic position and Race/Ethnicity
 Valdez L. A., and Langellier B. A., 2015 [39]> 18 yrs., US (n = 6 070)Symptom scale:Kessler 6 (psychological distress)Linear regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess: household income and ethnicity (n.s)4/5
Excess: education and ethnicity (n.s)
Gender and Race/ethnicity and Socioeconomic position
 Wamala et al., 2009 [40]National sample 16–84 yrs., Sweden (n = 56 889)Symptom scale:GHQ-12 (depressive symptoms)Logistic regression, relative measure of inequalityJoint (significant)5/5
 Rosenfield S., 2012 [29]Data set 1: population sample 15–54 yrs., US (n = 5 877)Diagnostic interview: Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (antisocial personality disorder and conduct disorder)Logistic regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
Diagnostic interview: CIDI (depression) Excess (n.s)5/5
Data set 2: State sample (New Jersey) US15,18 and 21 yrs. (n = 1 308,)Symptom scale: Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-90R (antisocial problems) Excess (n.s)5/5
Symptom scale: HSCL-90R (depressive symptoms) Excess (n.s)5/5
Sexual orientation and Gender
 Becker M., et al., 2014 [41]18–28 yrs., US (n = 2 451)Symptom scale: CES-D (depressive symptoms)Analysis of variance (ANOVA), absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
Symptom scale: SIS (suicidal ideation) Excess (n.s)
 Li G., et al., 2016 [42]Mean age 21 yrs., US (n = 9 421)Symptom scale: CES-D (depressive symptoms)ANOVA, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
 Cohen J. M., et al., 2016 [43]Mean age 18 yrs., US (n = 314)Symptom scale: Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-Q)-9 (anxiety symptoms)Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
Symptom scale: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) (post traumatic stress symptoms) Excess (n.s)
Social Phobia Diagnostic Questionnaire (SPDQ) (social phobia symptoms) Excess (n.s)
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) -II (depressive symptoms) Excess (n.s)
 Strong S. M., et al. 2000 [44]18–32 yrs., US (n = 412)Symptom scale: BDI (depressive symptoms)Stepwise multiple regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)5/5
Symptom scale: Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) (eating disorder symptoms)Chi-square test, absolute measure of inequalityJoint (significant)
 Davids C. M., and Green M. A., 2011 [45]18–80 yrs., US (n = 454)Symptom scale: Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (eating disorder symptoms)Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), absolute measure of inequalityExcess (n.s)4/5
 Lundberg J., et al., 2009 [23]18–70 yrs., Sweden (n = 14 854)Symptom scale: GHQ-12 (common mental disorder symptoms)Logistic regression, relative measure of inequalityJoint (significant)5/5
 Garratt E., A., et al., 2016 [46]Parents to children born 2000–01, UK (n = 83 395)Symptom scale: Kessler 6 (common mental disorder symptoms)Linear fixed-effects panel regression, absolute measure of inequalityExcess (antagonistic)5/5