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Table 7 Average HEE values of the super-SBM-VRS model for 31 provinces in rural China from 2007 to 2016

From: Health expenditure efficiency in rural China using the super-SBM model and the Malmquist productivity index

Provinces 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Average
Beijing (E) 0.513 0.515 0.482 0.534 0.544 0.548 0.534 0.538 0.576 1.015 0.580
Tianjin (E) 0.740 0.728 0.573 0.653 0.613 0.627 0.579 0.563 0.625 0.998 0.670
Hebei (E) 0.858 0.709 0.459 0.525 0.484 0.517 0.501 0.486 0.473 0.543 0.555
Shanxi (C) 1.007 0.627 0.455 1.005 0.473 0.477 0.462 0.419 0.381 0.393 0.570
Inner Mongolia (W) 1.013 0.670 0.475 0.550 0.513 0.533 0.534 0.573 0.629 1.010 0.650
Liaoning (NE) 0.833 0.820 0.589 0.728 0.675 0.720 0.736 0.645 0.645 0.598 0.699
Jinlin (NE) 0.715 0.646 0.442 0.501 0.473 0.490 0.428 0.432 0.372 0.388 0.489
Heilongjiang (NE) 0.812 0.729 0.501 0.574 0.471 0.525 0.541 0.483 0.470 0.514 0.562
Shanghai (E) 1.126 1.013 1.004 1.009 1.031 0.956 1.006 1.009 0.953 1.004 1.011
Jiangsu (E) 0.837 0.788 0.637 1.011 0.759 0.743 0.773 0.836 0.815 1.038 0.824
Zhejiang (E) 0.595 0.548 0.423 0.450 0.331 0.319 0.304 0.299 0.355 1.023 0.465
Anhui (C) 0.674 0.599 0.452 0.485 0.383 0.395 0.391 0.396 0.409 0.476 0.466
Fujian (E) 0.841 0.745 0.578 0.777 0.670 0.734 0.739 0.666 0.643 0.685 0.708
Jiangxi (C) 0.674 0.788 0.462 0.533 0.529 0.701 0.636 0.544 0.547 0.586 0.600
Shandong (E) 1.107 0.933 0.698 1.050 0.872 1.004 1.027 0.891 0.850 1.014 0.945
Henan (C) 0.767 0.763 0.490 0.556 0.476 0.494 0.488 0.487 0.494 0.539 0.555
Hubei (C) 0.846 0.726 0.539 0.695 0.614 0.722 0.789 0.855 0.873 1.018 0.768
Hunan (C) 1.066 1.007 0.581 0.729 0.635 0.730 0.748 0.739 0.853 1.018 0.810
Guangdong (E) 1.070 0.791 0.637 0.927 0.603 0.573 0.556 0.504 0.481 0.489 0.663
Guangxi (W) 0.694 0.611 0.384 0.452 0.397 0.450 0.513 0.489 0.478 0.497 0.497
Hainan (E) 0.605 0.508 0.356 0.389 0.301 0.287 0.293 0.283 0.280 0.280 0.358
Chongqing (W) 1.020 1.016 1.011 1.023 0.707 0.981 1.008 0.820 0.832 1.043 0.946
Sichuan (W) 0.714 0.719 0.515 0.591 0.536 0.669 0.685 0.678 0.685 1.000 0.679
Guizhou (W) 0.413 0.388 0.278 0.333 0.298 0.327 0.377 0.349 0.355 0.393 0.351
Yunan (W) 0.404 0.380 0.277 0.321 0.298 0.333 0.368 0.369 0.364 0.407 0.352
Tibet (W) 0.287 0.305 0.239 0.251 0.503 0.523 0.722 1.009 1.011 1.012 0.586
Shaanxi (W) 0.755 0.607 0.411 0.470 0.440 0.516 0.532 0.534 0.525 0.617 0.541
Gansu (W) 0.352 0.400 0.294 0.357 0.302 0.344 0.344 0.334 0.322 0.352 0.340
Qinghai (W) 0.321 0.317 0.243 0.287 0.311 0.316 0.329 0.334 0.269 0.297 0.302
Ningxia (W) 0.383 0.399 0.275 0.340 0.341 0.339 0.327 0.307 0.314 0.336 0.336
Xinjiang (W) 0.522 0.482 0.333 0.537 0.553 0.589 0.744 0.862 0.861 1.011 0.649
Annual average 0.728 0.654 0.487 0.601 0.520 0.564 0.581 0.572 0.572 0.697 0.598
  1. E, NE, C and W in parentheses refer to the east, northeast, central and west areas, respectively