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Table 5 Gelberg Anderson Behavioural Model for Vulnerable Populations [10]

From: Making sense of street chaos: an ethnographic exploration of homeless people’s health service utilization

Predisposing Factors Enabling Factors Need Health Behaviour Outcomes
Traditional Domain
Demographics
Age
Gender
Marital Status.
Health Beliefs
Values Concerning health and illness
Altitudes towards health services.
Knowledge about disease
Social Structure
Ethnicity
Education
Employment
Social Networks
Occupation
Family Size
Religion
Personal / Family Resources
Regular Source of Care
Entitlement to free primary-care
Income
Social Support
Perceived Barriers to Care
Community Resources
Residence
Region
Health Services Resources
Perceived health
General Population health conditions
Evaluated Health
General Population health conditions
Personal Health Practices
Diet
Exercise
Self Care
Tobacco Use
Adherence to care
Use of Health Services
Ambulatory Care
Inpatient Care
Alternative Healthcare
Long-term healthcare
Traditional & Vulnerable Domains
Health Status
Perceived Health
Evaluated Health
Satisfaction with Care
General Satisfaction
Technical quality
Interpersonal aspects
Coordination
Communication
Financial Aspects
Time spent with clinical
Access / Availability
Convenience
Continuity
Comprehensiveness
Administrative Hassle
Vulnerable Domain
Social Structure
Country of birth
Acculturation / Immigration / Literacy
Sexual orientation
Childhood characteristics
Residential History (e.g. foster care, orphanages) / Homelessness
Living Conditions
Mobility (stability of home)
Length of time in the community
Criminal behaviour / Prison history
History of abuse or neglect
Mental Health
Psychological resources (self esteem, social skills etc)
Substance abuse
Personal / Family Resources
Competing Needs
Hunger
Social Benefits
Self Help Skills
Ability to negotiate system
Key worker
Transport
Telephone
Information Sources
Community Resources
Crime rates
Social Services resources
Perceived health
Vulnerable Population health conditions
Evaluated Health
Vulnerable Population health conditions (e.g. TB, STD’s, and HIV, Hepatitis etc and substance abuse and mental health problems).
Personal Health Practices
Food sources
Hygiene
Unsafe sexual practices