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Table 5 Decomposition of the Concentration Index

From: Equitable realization of the right to health in Haiti: how household data inform health seeking behavior and financial risk protection

  All health facilities (N = 1878) Public health facilities (N = 806) Public Dispensaries (N = 327) Public Hospitals (N = 479) Private for Profit facilities (N = 472) Ancillary Services (N = 274) Community Health Workers (N = 112) Traditional Healers (N = 104)
Concentration index (Inequality) 0.02 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.12 0.07 −0.22 −0.18
Standardizing demographic variables
 Household size 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.00 −0.00 0.06 0.02 −0.04
 Gender 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 Older than 65 −0.00 −0.00 −0.00 − 0.00 0.00 0.00 −0.00 − 0.00
 <  4 years −0.03 − 0.04 −0.07 − 0.02 −0.01 − 0.05 −0.07 − 0.01
Control variables
 Wealth quintiles 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.09 0.13 0.14 −0.07 0.07
 Educated −0.09 − 0.03 −0.03 − 0.02 −0.02 − 0.03 −0.03 − 0.04
 Health Insurance 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 −0.00 0.03 0.00
 Urban −0.02 −0.00 − 0.02 0.01 0.01 −0.06 − 0.10 −0.13
 Residual 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.01 −0.00 0.01 −0.00 −0.03
  1. Source: ECVMAS 2013, using ADePT software
  2. Methodological note: The decomposition of outpatient health services by provider type distinguishes the inequality measure from justifiable standardizing determinants such as age and gender- and unjustifiable determinants -the Z such as income, health insurance status. Each factor is drawn above or below zero– above 0 indicates a positive contribution of the factor making the CI more pro-rich and below 0 indicates a negative contribution of the factor making the concentration more pro-poor. The residuals show the part of the CI that is not due to the factors included in the analysis. In this study, gender and age and having children below 4 are seen as “need” variables that predict the need for health services, while wealth quintile, education, health insurance and residence as “non-need” variables, from which the differences of utilization resulted are considered as unfair and as inequity