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Table 4 Association between sociodemographic factors and health insurance (n = 14,443)

From: Sociodemographic patterns of health insurance coverage in Namibia

Sociodemographic characteristics Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
RR (95% CI) p RR (95% CI) p RR (95% CI) p
Sex
 Men 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Women 0.80 (0.74–0.87) < 0.001 0.79 (0.71–0.88) < 0.001 0.83 (0.74–0.94) 0.003
Age group
 15–19 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 20–24 1.07 (0.91–1.27) 0.421 0.99 (0.80–1.23) 0.951 0.64 (0.54–0.75) < 0.001
 25–29 1.39 (1.18–1.64) < 0.001 1.30 (1.00–1.68) 0.049 0.70 (0.60–0.82) < 0.001
 30–34 1.98 (1.69–2.32) < 0.001 1.80 (1.40–2.32) < 0.001 0.83 (0.73–0.96) 0.010
 35–39 2.12 (1.81–2.49) < 0.001 1.97 (1.45–2.68) < 0.001 0.89 (0.75–1.06) 0.200
 40–44 2.65 (2.26–3.10) < 0.001 2.28 (1.67–3.10) < 0.001 0.98 (0.82–1.16) 0.784
 45–49 3.09 (2.63–3.63) < 0.001 2.66 (1.98–3.57) < 0.001 1.13 (0.93–1.38) 0.233
 50–64 2.45 (2.09–2.88) < 0.001 2.35 (1.80–3.07) < 0.001 1.08 (0.87–1.33) 0.503
Education level
 No education 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Primary 1.55 (1.13–2.12) 0.006 1.53 (1.13–2.07) 0.006 1.28 (0.99–1.66) 0.060
 Secondary 4.50 (3.38–6.00) < 0.001 3.44 (2.73–4.34) < 0.001 2.35 (1.92–2.88) < 0.001
 Higher 16.81 (12.55–22.51) < 0.001 9.42 (6.14–14.47) < 0.001 3.98 (3.11–5.10) < 0.001
Wealth quintile
 Lowest 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Second 2.84 (1.96–4.12) < 0.001 2.89 (1.76–4.75) < 0.001 2.52 (1.54–4.13) < 0.001
 Middle 5.89 (4.17–8.34) < 0.001 6.03 (4.07–8.95) < 0.001 4.44 (2.90–6.82) < 0.001
 Fourth 11.95 (8.54–16.72) < 0.001 12.86 (8.97–18.43) < 0.001 7.58 (5.05–11.39) < 0.001
 Highest 30.62 (22.00–42.62) < 0.001 30.86 (21.84–43.60) < 0.001 13.47 (9.06–20.04) < 0.001
Residence type
 Urban 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Rural 0.35 (0.32–0.38) < 0.001 0.42 (0.35–0.50) < 0.001 1.03 (0.90–1.17) 0.676
Marital status
 Never married 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Currently married 3.05 (2.80–3.32) < 0.001 2.67 (2.20–3.24) < 0.001 1.68 (1.46–1.93) < 0.001
 Living with partner 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.287 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 0.522 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 0.354
 Formerly/ever married 1.28 (1.08–1.51) 0.004 1.40 (1.24–1.58) < 0.001 1.13 (1.04–1.24) 0.005
Occupation
 Professional 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Agricultural 0.54 (0.44–0.66) < 0.001 0.79 (0.69–0.91) 0.001 0.89 (0.76–1.05) 0.168
 Manual 0.71 (0.63–0.80) < 0.001 0.79 (0.70–0.90) < 0.001 0.86 (0.78–0.95) 0.003
 Unemployed 0.24 (0.22–0.26) < 0.001 0.32 (0.23–0.44) < 0.001 0.44 (0.35–0.55) < 0.001
  1. RR: Risk ratio obtained from Poisson regression analyses | 95% CI: 95% Confidence Intervals
  2. Model 1: univariable association between exposure and having health insurance
  3. Model 2: same as model one with region, enumeration area (EA) and household included as random effects (mixed effects Poisson regression)
  4. Model 3: additionally adjusted for all covariates included in the table (multivariable mixed effects Poisson regression)