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Table 1 Descriptive statistics by mutually exclusive household groups and income quintile

From: Assessing the relationship between out-of-pocket spending on blood pressure and diabetes medication and household catastrophic health expenditure: evidence from Pakistan

  Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
Distribution of Households (%)
 HHs that doesn’t spend on BP or Diabetes medication 83.99 (82.03, 85.95) 78.57 (76.83, 80.30) 74.47 (72.33, 76.60) 71.57 (69.72, 73.41) 64.29 (62.30, 66.29)
 HHs that spend on BP medication only 11.22 (9.63, 12.81) 13.62 (12.13, 15.12) 14.18 (12.62, 15.74) 16.65 (15.10, 18.19) 19.05 (17.49, 20.61)
 HHs that spend on Diabetes medication only 2.66 (1.88, 3.44) 4.79 (3.85, 5.74) 6.17 (5.12, 7.23) 6.22 (5.30, 7.15) 7.73 (6.66, 8.80)
 HHs that spend on BP & Diabetes medication 2.13 (1.38, 2.87) 3.02 (2.35, 3.69) 5.18 (4.31, 6.05) 5.56 (4.63, 6.49) 8.93 (7.90, 9.96)
Avg. OOP Medical Expenditure (Rs.)
 HHs that doesn’t spend on BP or Diabetes medication 479.2 (447.3, 511.2) 590.2 (549.5, 630.8) 634.9 (567.7, 702.2) 923.0 (755.6, 1090.4) 995.9 (872.6, 1119.2)
 HHs that spend on BP medication only 841.3 (745.7, 936.9) 997.0 (902.4, 1091.6) 1104.2 (969.5, 1238.8) 1314.4 (1190.4, 1438.4) 1885.4 (1615.7, 2155.2)
 HHs that spend on Diabetes medication only 854.1 (684.4, 1023.9) 1045.2 (799.7, 1290.7) 1265.4 (1019.4, 1511.3) 1454.2 (1247.5, 1660.9) 2230.0 (1678.8, 2781.2)
 HHs that spend on BP & Diabetes medication 1183.8 (818.1, 1549.4) 1469.4 (1242.4, 1696.4) 2081.7 (1724.8, 2438.5) 2090.1 (1841.4, 2338.8) 3493.0 (2392.7, 4593.2)
Avg. OOP BPD Medicine Expenditure (Rs.)
 HHs that doesn’t spend on BP or Diabetes medication
 HHs that spend on BP medication only 181.6 (139.7, 223.5) 206.2 (177.4, 235.0) 239.4 (184.8, 294.0) 302.8 (252.8, 352.8) 354.3 (284.2, 424.4)
 HHs that spend on Diabetes medication only 328.6 (222.1, 435.1) 328.0 (258.1, 397.9) 456.3 (335.0, 577.5) 543.5 (410.8, 676.3) 715.0 (533.9, 896.1)
 HHs that spend on BP & Diabetes medication 418.3 (174.3, 662.3) 482.2 (351.4, 612.9) 756.5 (561.1, 951.8) 900.3 (749.8, 1050.8) 1153.0 (998.6, 1307.4)
Avg. Medical Exp. Share (%)
 HHs that doesn’t spend on BP or Diabetes medication 3.72 (3.47, 3.98) 3.51 (3.26, 3.75) 3.23 (2.92, 3.54) 3.54 (3.13, 3.96) 2.68 (2.40, 2.96)
 HHs that spend on BP medication only 5.61 (4.94, 6.29) 5.08 (4.62, 5.55) 4.67 (4.12, 5.22) 4.61 (4.21, 5.00) 4.37 (3.88, 4.86)
 HHs that spend on Diabetes medication only 5.74 (4.31, 7.16) 4.72 (3.91, 5.54) 5.71 (4.50, 6.92) 5.58 (4.68, 6.48) 5.52 (4.05, 6.98)
 HHs that spend on BP & Diabetes medication 7.11 (4.88, 9.35) 6.75 (5.62, 7.88) 7.81 (6.48, 9.15) 6.58 (5.80, 7.37) 6.50 (5.24, 7.76)
Avg. CHE Incidence (%)
 HHs that doesn’t spend on BP or Diabetes medication 5.68 (4.38, 6.98) 5.91 (4.63, 7.18) 5.02 (3.68, 6.37) 7.27 (5.81, 8.74) 5.32 (3.93, 6.72)
 HHs that spend on BP medication only 10.44 (6.58, 14.30) 9.47 (6.37, 12.57) 10.14 (6.50, 13.78) 11.68 (8.77, 14.60) 9.65 (7.04, 12.27)
 HHs that spend on Diabetes medication only 13.81 (5.07, 22.56) 13.71 (5.39, 22.03) 17.38 (10.56, 24.19) 14.38 (9.39, 19.38) 12.80 (8.10, 17.51)
 HHs that spend on BP & Diabetes medication 15.36 (6.21, 24.51) 19.24 (10.34, 28.13) 27.67 (19.56, 35.78) 18.73 (12.68, 24.79) 15.83 (10.52, 21.15)
  1. Note: Average refers to arithmetic mean. Survey weights are used to obtain nationally representative average measures. 95% confidence interval in parentheses. Rs. 1 ≈ USD 0.01