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Table 1 General characteristics of study population at baseline in 2012

From: The relationship between catastrophic health expenditure and health-related quality of life

Variables EQ-VAS
N (%) Mean ± S.D t / F value p-value
Catastrophic expenditure −7.37 <.0001
 Yes 398 (4.5) 64.46 ± 17.56   
 No 8452 (95.5) 71.06 ± 15.21   
Sex 8.42 <.0001
 Male 3834 (43.3) 72.32 ± 14.72   
 Female 5016 (56.7) 69.57 ± 15.78   
Age 104.34 <.0001
 19~ 29 733 (8.3) 75.19 ± 14.60   
 30~ 39 1421 (16.1) 73.56 ± 14.55   
 40~ 49 2057 (23.2) 73.65 ± 13.37   
 50~ 59 1693 (19.1) 70.86 ± 14.55   
 60~ 69 1503 (17.0) 68.36 ± 16.03   
 70+ 1443 (16.3) 64.03 ± 16.88   
Education level 281.25 <.0001
 Elementary or below 1912 (21.6) 64.16 ± 16.87   
 Middle/high school 3955 (44.7) 71.14 ± 14.85   
 College or above 2983 (33.7) 74.49 ± 13.63   
Economic status 10.29 <.0001
 Employed 5498 (62.1) 72.11 ± 14.46   
 Unemployed 3352 (37.9) 68.55 ± 16.56   
Income 117.73 <.0001
 Low 1243 (14.0) 63.41 ± 17.67   
 Middle-low 1687 (19.1) 69.08 ± 15.39   
 Middle 1866 (21.1) 71.25 ± 14.82   
 Middle-high 1987 (22.4) 72.56 ± 14.56   
 High 2067 (23.4) 74.38 ± 13.41   
Health insurance type 12.17 <.0001
 Health insurance 8448 (95.5) 71.30 ± 14.96   
 Medical aid 402 (4.5) 59.39 ± 19.34   
Family constitution 79.65 <.0001
 Living alone 667 (7.5) 66.46 ± 17.12   
 Couple 1792 (20.3) 68.06 ± 16.37   
 Couple with children 4803 (54.3) 73.00 ± 14.11   
 More 1588 (17.9) 68.87 ± 16.06   
Number of chronic disease 225.56 <.0001
 0 3180 (35.9) 74.92 ± 13.73   
 1 1794 (20.3) 72.41 ± 14.19   
 2 1252 (14.1) 70.00 ± 15.11   
 3+ 2624 (29.7) 64.96 ± 16.34   
Disability 12.77 <.0001
 Absent 8266 (93.4) 71.38 ± 15.04   
 Present 584 (6.6) 61.95 ± 17.40   
Perceive health status 40.78 <.0001
 Good 7478 (84.5) 73.72 ± 13.20   
 Bad 1372 (15.5) 54.62 ± 16.41   
Depression mood −18.53 <.0001
 Present 632 (7.4) 58.11 ± 18.03   
 Absent 8218 (92.9) 71.74 ± 14.72   
Year  
 2012 8850 100.0 70.76 ± 15.39