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Table 4 Summary of changes in inequality by policy domain

From: How do macro-level structural determinants affect inequalities in mental health? – a systematic review of the literature

Policy domain Summary of changes in inequalities
Welfare States The evidence indicates that the Nordic model was associated with fewer mental health problems and fewer gender inequalities compared to other welfare regimes especially basic-security/market welfare states.
Family The evidence indicates that welfare regimes with more inclusive family policies may reduce inequalities in mental health outcomes for women.
Employment The evidence indicates increases in mental health problems for those in lower SES after welfare reforms (austerity measures).
Income Support The evidence indicates that restrictions on income support may have negative effects (see employment). More generous welfare benefits are associated with fewer SES inequalities in mental health.
Education Unclear knowledge about this policy domain.
Area-based initiatives The evidence indicates that neighbourhood renewals in more disadvantaged areas provide some improvement to women’s mental well-being.