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Table 2 Description of the included studies

From: Social disparities in patient safety in primary care: a systematic review

N Citation Location Outcome of interest Patient safety domain Study design Major findings Quality of the study
1 Maserejian et al. (2009) [22] USA Gender disparities in physicians’ diagnosis of coronary heart disease Diagnostic error Factorial experiment Gender: diagnosis of coronary heart disease is significantly dependent on patient’s gender: women are less likely to be diagnosed with coronary heart disease; despite identical symptoms.
Ethnicity: not associated with the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.
Income: high income women more likely to receive a mental health diagnosis instead of coronary heart disease diagnosis.
Education: not studied.
Fair
2 Hansen et al. (2008) [12] DK Socioeconomic patients characteristics influencing delay in cancer diagnosis Transition of care/ diagnostic error Cross-sectional Study Gender: doctor and system delays: male cancer patients experience longer delays than female cancer patients.
Ethnicity: not studied.
Income: high income associated with shorter doctor and systems delays and longer patient delays.
Education: well educated males and well educated patients in general, experience shorter doctor delays.
Good
3 Henning et al. (2013) [16] AU & IT Gender differences in referral patterns for bladder cancer Diagnostic error Cross-sectional Study Gender: men are 65% more likely to be referred to a specialist at the first episode of haematuria compared to women.
Ethnicity: not studied.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Fair
4 Kistler et al. (2010) [18] USA Patient characteristics influencing the perceptions of mistakes in ambulatory care Administrative error Cross-sectional Study Gender: gender not associated with perception of mistakes.
Ethnicity: no association between ethnicity and perception of mistakes.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Fair
5 Maeng et al. (2012) [21] USA Perception of care coordination problems Administrative error Cross-sectional Study Gender: not studied.
Ethnicity: ethnicity not associated with self-reported care coordination problems.
Income: income not associated with self-reported care coordination problem.
Education: not studied.
Fair
6 McKinlay et al. (2012) [13] USA Racial disparities in diabetes mellitus diagnosis Diagnostic error Mixed methods: survey, factorial experiment Gender: not studied.
Ethnicity: White patients, with the same symptoms as black patients and Hispanics, underdiagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2.
Income: Undiagnosed signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 patterned by income and education.
Education: Undiagnosed signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 patterned by income and education.
Good
7 Eva et al. (2010) [9] USA Factors related to physicians’ changing their minds about a diagnosis Diagnostic error Factorial experiment Gender: gender is no significant predictor of change of diagnosis.
Ethnicity: ethnicity is no significant predictor of change of diagnosis.
Income: income no significant predictor of change of diagnosis.
Education: education no significant predictor of change of diagnosis.
Good
8 Cooper et al. (2016) [15] GBR& IRL Socioeconomic patients’ characteristics influencing potentially inappropriate prescriptions Medication error Cross-sectional Study Gender: women have increased likelihood of potentially inappropriate prescriptions compared to men.
Ethnicity: not studied.
Income: low income patients have increased risk of potentially inappropriate prescriptions compared to their wealthier counterparts.
Education: not studied.
Fair
9 Becker et al. (2011) [8] USA Racial disparities in opioid risk reduction strategies Medication error Retrospective Cohort Study Gender: not studied.
Ethnicity: black patients are more likely to receive opioid risk reduction strategy compared to white patients.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Good
10 Ladapo et al. (2014) [19] USA Patients’ characteristics influencing physicians’ decision making for cardiac stress testing use Transition of care Cross-sectional Study Gender: women increased likelihood of undergoing or being referred for cardiac testing.
Ethnicity: No association between black race and Hispanic ethnicity and lower likelihood of receiving cardiac stress test compared to whites.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Fair
11 Lukakcho & Olfson (2012) USA Racial difference of depression diagnosis during first primary care visit Diagnostic error Cross-sectional study Gender: not studied.
Ethnicity: African American patients more likely to be underdiagnosed with depression during the first GP visit compared to white patients.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Fair
12 Hickner et al. (2007) USA Predictors of adverse events due to testing errors. Administrative error Cross-sectional Study Gender: not studied.
Ethnicity: minority patients have higher odds of experiencing adverse consequences due to testing errors compared to white and non-Hispanic patients.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Fair
13 Schröder et al. (2016) [14] NZL, ESP, SWE, ITA, BEL, DNK, DEU, ISR & GBR Gender differences in antibiotic prescription Medication error Systematic review Gender: Women are 27% more likely than men to receive antibiotic prescription;
The amount of antibiotics prescribed to women is 36% higher than that prescribed to men in the 16–34 years age group and 40% higher in the 35–54 years age group. In particular, the amount of cephalosporins and macrolides prescribed to women is 44 and 32% higher, respectively, than those prescribed to men.
Ethnicity: not studied.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Good
14 Green et al. (2013) [11] GBR Factors associated with prescription of opioids for joint pain Medication error Prospective cohort study Gender: female gender is associated with decreased frequency of opioid prescription.
Ethnicity: not studied.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Good
15 Fleming-Dutra et al. (2014) [10] USA Racial disparities in diagnosis and antibiotic prescription for otitis media Diagnostic error/ Medication error Retrospective cohort study Gender: not studied.
Ethnicity: Black children are more likely to receive narrow-spectrum antibiotics for otitis media compared with non-black children who are more likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics; black children are 30% less likely than non-black children to be diagnosed with otitis media during ambulatory care visits.
Income: not studied.
Education: not studied.
Good