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Table 2 Panel unit root tests

From: Inter-provincial inequality of public health services in China: the perspective of local officials’ behavior

   Levin-Lin-Chu test Im, Pesaran and Shin test ADF-Fisher test Pesaran’s simple test
Levels equalization1 1.668 4.625 40.423 0.872
equalization2 3.438 5.394 23.514 2.475
self −5.815** −3.216** 176.639** 1.238
transfer 10.398 13.971 0.976 −0.946
gdpg −1.498 −1.197 54.575 −1.602
education −4.436** −2.585** 4.094 −6.582**
dependency −2.617** −1.444 78.900 −2.087*
urbanization −0.949 3.306 79.842 −1.582
population −4.032** −0.756 167.540** −0.905
Difference d_equalization1 −6.984** −6.54** 192.482** −2.908**
d_equalization2 −5.027** −6.804** 249.782** −6.042**
d_self −7.563** −7.729** 169.105** −3.514**
d_transfer −4.195** − 3.157** 60.952** − 3.805**
d_gdpg −9.191** −10.531** 238.575** −4.769**
d_education −12.749** −14.756** 354.954** −10.993**
d_dependency −11.878** −12.309** 190.559** −7.640**
d_urbanization −5.895** −5.769** 166.369** −4.812**
d_population −6.956** −8.986** 170.687** −7.907**
  1. Note: “**” and “*” indicate significance levels of 1 and 5%, respectively