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Table 4 The effects of urbanization rate and individual characteristics on CES-D score mediated by neighborhood social capital; coefficient (standard error)

From: The relationship between urbanization and depression in China: the mediating role of neighborhood social capital

Variable Model 5(a) Model 5(b)
Fixed effects Coeff. (SE) Coeff. (SE)
Urbanization rate −1.690** (0.810) −1.547** (0.751)
Male (ref: female) − 1.240*** (0.153) − 1.239*** (0.153)
Age 0.040*** (0.005) 0.040*** (0.005)
Marital status (ref. = single, divorced, or widowed)
 Married and living with a spouse −1.0539*** (0.179) −1.053*** (0.179)
 Married and not living with a spouse − 0.724*** (0.264) −0.725*** (0.264)
Education (ref: primary school or less)
 High school −1.074*** (0.153) −1.077*** (0.152)
 College or more −1.045*** (0.251) −1.046*** (0.252)
Employed (ref: unemployed) −0.553** (0.265) −0.551** (0.265)
Local hukou (ref: non-local hukou) −0.309 (0.248) −0.319(0.248)
Urban areas (ref: rural areas) −0.950(0.758) −1.074(0.762)
Smoking status (ref: non-smoker) 0.093 (0.173) 0.093 (0.173)
Alcohol use (ref: none) −0.057 (0.171) −0.059 (0.17)
Medical insurance (ref: no) −0.850*** (0.203) −0.848*** (0.203)
Physical health status (ref: no disease) 5.886*** (0.196) 5.885*** (0.196)
Logarithm of physical exercise time −0.120*** (0.026) −0.120*** (0.026)
Logarithm of average annual household income per household member −0.575*** (0.065) −0.576*** (0.065)
Individual-level social capital
 Neighbors are extremely/very trustworthy (ref: neighbors are somewhat/slightly/not at all trustworthy) −1.699*** (0.149) −1.699*** (0.149)
 Neighbors always/often help one another (ref: neighbors sometimes/seldom/never help one another) −0.251*** (0.124) −0.251*** (0.124)
 Number of types of voluntary groups −1.095*** (0.133) −1.095*** (0.133)
Logarithm of average annual neighborhood income per neighborhood resident −1.056** (0.3251) −0.990** (0.326)
Neighborhood-level social capital
 Neighborhood social trust −3.503** (1.473) −3.952*** (1.535)
 Neighborhood social reciprocity −0.861** (0.357) −0.719** (0.350)
 Neighborhood social group membership −0.504** (0.244) −0.690** (0.299)
Cross-level interaction terms
 Neighborhood-level social trust × urbanization rate   −7.582 (7.582)
 Neighborhood-level social reciprocity × urbanization rate   −1.415** (0.700)
 Neighborhood-level social group membership × urbanization rate   −2.707** (1.350)
Constant 21.310*** (1.503) 21.637*** (1.541)
Random effects Coeff. Coeff.
Var (prefecture-level constant) 2.269*** 2.434***
Var (neighborhood-level constant) 4.782*** 4.651***
Var (residual) 70.298*** 70.297***
Number of prefectures 158 158
Number of neighborhoods 401 401
Number of respondents 20,861 20,861
Log-likelihood −74,303 −74,302
AIC 148,660 148,664
  1. * = p < 0.10, ** = p < 0.05, *** = p < 0.01. All continuous independent variables and covariates were grand-mean centered