Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 The relationship of urbanization and individual characteristics to neighborhood social capital; coefficient (standard error)

From: The relationship between urbanization and depression in China: the mediating role of neighborhood social capital

Independent variable Model 2: Neighborhood-level social trust Model 3: Neighborhood-level social reciprocity Model 4: Neighborhood-level social group membership
Fixed effects Coeff. (SE) Coeff. (SE) Coeff. (SE)
Urbanization rate −0.172*** (0.039) − 0.244*** (0.072) − 0.113*** (0.031)
Male (ref: female) 0.001 (0.001) 0.005** (0.002) −0.007*** (0.002)
Age 0.000*** (0.000) −0.001*** (0.000) 0.001*** (0.000)
Marital status (ref. = single, divorced, or widowed)
 Married and living with a spouse −0.001 (0.001) 0.003 (0.002) −0.004* (0.002)
 Married and not living with a spouse −0.002 (0.002) 0.002 (0.004) −0.002 (0.003)
Education (ref: primary school or less)
 High school −0.001 (0.001) −0.020*** (0.002) 0.023*** (0.002)
 College or more 0.001 (0.002) −0.052*** (0.003) 0.054*** (0.003)
Employed (ref: unemployed) −0.003 (0.002) −0.007* (0.004) 0.002 (0.003)
Local hukou (ref: non-local hukou) 0.013*** (0.002) 0.030*** (0.003) −0.002*** (0.001)
Urban areas (ref: rural areas) −0.007 (0.006) −0.144 (0.100) − 0.214 (0.202)
Smoking status (ref: non-smoker) −0.002 (0.001) − 0.002 (0.002) − 0.001 (0.002)
Alcohol use (ref: no) 0.001 (0.001) −0.002 (0.002) − 0.002 (0.002)
Medical insurance (ref: none) −0.000 (0.002) 0.007** (0.003) −0.006** (0.002)
Physical health status (ref: no disease) −0.002 (0.002) −0.010*** (0.003) 0.004* (0.002)
Logarithm of physical exercise time −0.001*** (0.000) − 0.004*** (0.000) 0.002*** (0.000)
Logarithm of average annual household income per household member 0.002*** (0.000) −0.008*** (0.001) 0.011*** (0.001)
Individual-level social capital
 Neighbors are extremely/very trustworthy (ref: neighbors are somewhat/slightly/not at all trustworthy) 0.028*** (0.001) 0.004** (0.002) 0.002** (0.001)
 Neighbors always/often help one another (ref: neighbors sometimes/seldom/never help one another) 0.004*** (0.001) 0.018*** (0.002) 0.089*** (0.002)
 Number of types of voluntary groups 0.005*** (0.001) 0.072*** (0.002) 0.015*** (0.002)
Logarithm of average annual neighborhood income per neighborhood resident 0.003*** (0.001) −0.045*** (0.002) 0.001*** (0.000)
Constant 0.860*** (0.021) 0.655*** (0.037) −0.067*** (0.017)
Random effects Coeff. Coeff. Coeff.
Var (prefecture-level constant) 0.008*** 0.023*** 0.005***
Var (residual) 0.004*** 0.012*** 0.007***
Number of prefectures 158 158 158
Number of respondents 20,861 20,861 20,861
Log-likelihood 26,536 15,849 22,164
AIC −53,026 −31,652 −44,282
  1. * = p < 0.10, ** = p < 0.05, *** = p < 0.01. All continuous independent variables and covariates were grand-mean centered