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Table 2 The relationships of urbanization rate and individual characteristics to CES-D scores; coefficient (standard error)

From: The relationship between urbanization and depression in China: the mediating role of neighborhood social capital

Variable Model 1
Fixed effects Coeff. (SE)
Urbanization rate −0.736** (0.350)
Male (ref: female) −1.245*** (0.153)
Age 0.040*** (0.005)
Marital status (ref. = single, divorced, or widowed)
 Married and living with a spouse −1.056*** (0.179)
 Married and not living with a spouse −0.719*** (0.264)
Education (ref: primary school or less)
 High school −1.056*** (0.152)
 College or more −1.028*** (0.252)
Employed (ref: unemployed) −0.557** (0.265)
Local hukou (ref: non-local hukou) −0.555** (0.265)
Urban areas (ref: rural areas) −0.251(0.360)
Smoking status (ref: non-smoker) 0.100 (0.173)
Alcohol use (ref: no) −0.059 (0.171)
Medical insurance (ref: none) −0.854*** (0.203)
Physical health status (ref: no disease) 5.898*** (0.196)
Logarithm of physical exercise time −0.118*** (0.026)
Logarithm of average annual household income per household member −0.568*** (0.065)
Individual-level social capital
 Neighbors are extremely/very trustworthy (ref: neighbors are somewhat/slightly/not at all trustworthy) −1.739*** (0.148)
 Neighbors always/often help one another (ref: neighbors sometimes/seldom/never help one another) −0.269** (0.112)
 Number of voluntary group types −1.139*** (0.131)
Logarithm of average annual neighborhood income per neighborhood resident −0.961*** (0.329)
Constant 17.147*** (0.866)
Random effects Coeff.
Var (Prefecture-level constant) 2.100***
Var (Neighborhood-level constant) 5.134***
Var (Residual) 70.300***
Number of prefectures 158
Number of neighborhoods 401
Number of respondents 20,861
Log-likelihood −74,310
AIC 148,668
  1. * = p < 0.10, ** = p < 0.05, *** = p < 0.01. All continuous independent variables and covariates were grand-mean centered