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Table 2 Summary of decomposition analysis of income-related inequalities in fear of crime in the total sample, men and women in 2014, northern Sweden

From: Unsafe and unequal: a decomposition analysis of income inequalities in fear of crime in northern Sweden

N = 22,140 Total Men Women
Coeff Elast CI Cont to C Coeff Elast CI Cont to C Coeff Elast CI Cont to C
Abs Rel Abs Rel Abs Rel
Sociodemographic characteristics
Gender (REF: Men) 0.161*** 0.675 −0.118 −0.079 36.2           
Age (REF:45-64 yrs)
 16–29 yrs 0.024** 0.028 −0.504 −0.014 6.5 −0.013** −0.051 −0.504 0.026 −13.8 0.076*** 0.061 −0.498 −0.030 23.1
 30–44 yrs 0.011 0.018 0.192 0.003 −1.6 −0.006 −0.037 0.209 −0.008 4.1 0.032** 0.035 0.200 0.007 −5.3
 65–84 yrs 0.023** 0.058 −0.141 − 0.008 3.7 0.009 0.091 −0.135 −0.012 6.6 0.040* 0.059 −0.183 −0.011 8.1
Country of birth (REF: Sweden) 0.011 0.005 −0.171 − 0.001 0.4 0.015* 0.021 −0.208 −0.004 2.3 0.003 0.001 −0.121 0.000 0.1
Civil status (REF: Married/cohab)
 Unmarried/not cohab 0.004 0.005 −0.311 −0.002 0.7 0.013** 0.084 −0.359 −0.029 15.4 −0.013 −0.010 −0.295 0.003 −2.2
 Divorced 0.023** 0.010 −0.002 0.000 0.0 0.009 0.015 −0.073 −0.001 0.6 0.040* 0.011 0.070 0.001 −0.6
 Widower 0.007 0.003 −0.174 0.000 0.2 0.001 0.001 −0.198 0.000 0.1 0.018 0.006 −0.093 −0.001 0.4
Sexual orientation (REF: Heterosexual) 0.008 0.002 −0.328 −0.001 0.3 0.009 0.007 −0.346 −0.002 1.3 0.004 0.001 −0.311 0.000 0.2
Subtotal     −0.102 46.5     −0.031 16.5     −0.031 23.9
Residential context
Municipality size (REF: <  10,000)
 10,000–50,000 0.063*** 0.179 0.026 0.005 −2.1 0.018*** 0.193 0.028 0.005 −2.9 0.112*** 0.194 0.022 0.004 −3.3
 >  50,000 0.108*** 0.208 0.046 0.010 −4.4 0.031*** 0.216 0.056 0.012 −6.5 0.184*** 0.221 0.046 0.010 −7.7
Residential ownership (REF: Resident-owned)
 Rental 0.024** 0.034 −0.195 −0.007 3.0 0.016*** 0.073 −0.216 −0.016 8.5 0.034** 0.031 −0.168 −0.005 4.0
 Other arrangements 0.019* 0.009 −0.525 −0.005 2.2 0.007 0.012 −0.549 −0.007 3.6 0.036* 0.011 −0.514 −0.006 4.2
Subtotal     0.003 −1.2     −0.005 2.6     0.004 −2.7
Socioeconomic and material conditions
Income quintiles (REF: Highest)
 4 −0.006 −0.009 0.400 −0.004 1.6 0.000 0.003 0.195 0.000 −0.3 −0.019 −0.018 0.576 −0.010 7.7
 3 −0.006 −0.008 0.000 0.000 0.0 0.002 0.009 −0.183 −0.002 0.9 −0.022 −0.023 0.157 −0.004 2.8
 2 0.008 0.012 −0.400 −0.005 2.1 0.000 −0.002 −0.526 0.001 −0.6 0.005 0.005 −0.292 −0.001 1.1
 1 0.007 0.011 −0.800 −0.009 4.2 0.000 0.001 −0.848 0.000 0.2 0.004 0.004 −0.759 −0.003 2.5
Education (REF: High)
 Medium 0.009 0.026 0.062 0.002 −0.7 0.015* 0.152 0.070 0.011 −5.7 0.011 0.018 0.047 0.001 −0.7
 Low 0.017** 0.061 −0.148 − 0.009 4.1 0.017** 0.250 −0.126 −0.031 16.8 0.022* 0.047 −0.197 −0.009 7.1
Labour market position (REF: Working)
 Studying 0.030** 0.015 −0.671 − 0.009 4.5 0.007 0.010 −0.755 −0.007 4.0 0.058*** 0.021 −0.597 −0.013 9.6
 Retired 0.012 0.025 −0.156 −0.004 1.8 0.003 0.028 −0.163 −0.005 2.5 0.022 0.026 −0.195 −0.005 3.8
 Unemployed 0.008 0.011 −0.276 −0.003 1.4 0.004 0.016 −0.297 −0.005 2.6 0.011 0.011 −0.243 −0.003 2.0
Low cash margin (REF: No, able to get 15K1) 0.006 0.007 −0.339 −0.003 1.1 0.016** 0.054 −0.411 −0.022 11.8 −0.003 −0.003 −0.265 0.001 −0.5
Difficulties to make ends meet (REF: No) 0.016* 0.014 −0.240 −0.003 1.5 0.004 0.012 −0.309 −0.004 2.0 0.027* 0.016 −0.169 −0.003 2.0
Subtotal     −0.047 21.8     −0.064 34.1     −0.049 37.4
Psychosocial conditions
Social participation (REF: Yes) 0.013 0.011 −0.225 − 0.002 1.1 0.003 0.012 −0.254 −0.003 1.7 0.018 0.008 −0.255 −0.002 1.5
Social trust (REF: Yes) 0.063*** 0.098 −0.169 −0.017 7.6 0.020*** 0.116 −0.160 −0.019 9.9 0.110*** 0.105 −0.187 −0.020 14.9
Subjected to threat or violence (REF: No) 0.050*** 0.015 −0.081 −0.001 0.6 0.052*** 0.053 −0.168 −0.009 4.7 0.042* 0.009 0.011 0.000 −0.1
Degrading treatment (REF: No) 0.050*** 0.060 −0.083 −0.005 2.3 0.043*** 0.136 −0.100 −0.014 7.2 0.062*** 0.057 −0.023 −0.001 1.0
Subtotal     −0.025 11.5     −0.044 23.6     −0.023 17.4
Inequality (total)     −0.219 100     −0.187 100     −0.132 100
Standard error     0.011 5.0     0.030 16.2     0.013 10.0
Residual     −0.047 21.6     −0.043 23.1     −0.032 24.0
Inequality (explained)     −0.172 78.4     −0.144 76.9     −0.100 76.0
  1. Coeff Marginal effects from the probit model, Elast elasticity, CI Concentration index of the determinants, Cont to C Contribution to the total inequality, Abs Absolute contribution, Rel Relative contribution calculated on the overall explained proportion of total inequality
  2. 115,000 Swedish Krona (SEK) equals to ≈2172 US$, based on exchange rate from January 1, 2012
  3. * indicates <p 0.05; ** indicates p < 0.01; *** indicates p < 0.001