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Table 4 Adjusted logistic regression of household wealth and self-reported unmet need for oral health services, adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India, 2007-2010a

From: Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India

  China (N = 1591)
Adjusted Model
Ghana (N = 425)
Adjusted Model
India (N = 1307)
Adjusted Model
OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value
Household wealth (quintiles) 1 (Highest) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
2 0.82 (0.56–1.18) 0.275 2.05 (0.98–4.27) 0.055 1.23 (0.79–1.92) 0.357
3 1.01 (0.59–1.72) 0.978 2.70 (1.10–6.65) 0.030 1.30 (0.76–2.23) 0.335
4 0.79 (0.46–1.36) 0.338 2.90 (1.32–6.37) 0.008 1.40 (0.84–2.34) 0.202
5 (Lowest) 1.23 (0.80–1.90) 0.340 2.84 (1.14–7.11) 0.026 1.65 (0.91–3.00) 0.098
Sex Female 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Male 1.04 (0.81–1.34) 0.762 1.39 (0.67–2.87) 0.369 1.61 (1.02–2.54) 0.042
Age (years) 50–59 1.00   1.00   1.00  
60–69 1.24 (0.97–1.58) 0.082 1.75 (0.86–3.60) 0.124 1.48 (1.02–2.14) 0.038
70–79 1.77 (1.29–2.44) 0.001 0.97 (0.48–1.97) 0.937 2.52 (1.61–3.95) p < 0.001
80+ 3.41 (1.83–6.35) p < 0.001 1.86 (0.62–5.65) 0.268 2.89 (1.39–5.98) 0.004
Residence Urban 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Rural 2.99 (2.03–4.42) p < 0.001 1.38 (0.74–2.56) 0.310 1.02 (0.58–1.79) 0.955
Marital status Married 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Divorce 0.97 (0.74–1.26) 0.790 1.10 (0.54–2.26) 0.791 1.02 (0.69–1.50) 0.920
Never married 1.25 (0.26–5.96) 0.777 0.08 (0.01–1.19) 0.067 5.17 (0.86–31.07) 0.073
Work status Current worker 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Non-current 1.33 (0.89–1.99) 0.162 1.19 (0.58–2.43) 0.628 1.51 (1.01–2.25) 0.042
Never worked 1.75 (0.99–3.08) 0.052 n/a n/a 1.75 (1.01–3.05) 0.049
Self-rated health Good 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Moderate 0.97 (0.73–1.29) 0.850 1.41 (0.71–2.79) 0.321 1.19 (0.69–2.03) 0.529
Bad 1.23 (0.93–1.63) 0.143 1.02 (0.45–2.28) 0.965 0.89 (0.49–1.60) 0.689
  1. aData source – WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), 2007–2010
  2. [OR (CI)] Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals
  3. Statistical significance set at p < 0.05 (logistic regression)
  4. [n/a] No result due to no observation in the “never worked” group
  5. All significant estimates are bolded