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Table 3 Unadjusted associations with self-reported unmet need for oral health services, adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India, 2007-2010a

From: Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India

  China (N = 1591)
Unadjusted Model
Ghana (N = 425)
Unadjusted Model
India (N = 1307)
Unadjusted Model
OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value OR (CI) p-value
Household wealth (quintiles) 1 (Highest) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
2 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 0.377 2.24 (1.09–4.63) 0.029 1.21 (0.76–1.92) 0.427
3 1.59 (0.97–2.59) 0.064 3.13 (1.24–7.90) 0.016 1.27 (0.76–2.13) 0.361
4 1.59 (0.97–2.59) 0.064 3.15 (1.43–6.92) 0.005 1.31 (0.76–2.26) 0.334
5 (Lowest) 2.85 (1.90–4.27) p < 0.001 2.96 (1.20–7.23) 0.019 1.44 (0.83–2.50) 0.197
Education University 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Secondary 1.95 (0.79–4.82) 0.144 3.56 (1.05–12.02) 0.041 4.17 (1.20–14.49) 0.025
Primary 2.89 (1.15–7.26) 0.025 2.60 (0.82–8.26) 0.104 4.08 (1.15–14.40) 0.029
No school 6.06 (2.27–16.17) 0.001 6.39 (2.31–17.71) p < 0.001 5.40 (1.53–19.05) 0.009
Sex Female 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Male 0.99 (0.77–1.28) 0.961 1.19 (0.71–1.99) 0.507 1.26 (0.87–1.83) 0.218
Age (years) 50–59 1.00   1.00   1.00  
60–69 1.36 (1.04–1.77) 0.026 1.88 (0.97–3.65) 0.060 1.61 (1.10–2.34) 0.014
70–79 1.76 (1.21–2.55) 0.004 1.09 (0.58–2.04) 0.797 2.74 (1.85–4.07) p < 0.001
80+ 3.50 (2.10–5.83) p < 0.001 2.22 (0.87–5.67) 0.093 3.15 (1.61–6.16) 0.001
Residence Urban 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Rural 2.50 (1.85–3.39) p < 0.001 1.80 (0.99–3.26) 0.051 1.08 (0.58–2.01) 0.807
Marital status Married 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Divorce 1.38 (1.08–1.77) 0.012 0.96 (0.59–1.59) 0.886 1.28 (0.95–1.73) 0.108
Never married 1.77 (0.62–5.07) 0.280 0.08 (0.01–0.85) 0.037 7.05 (1.31–38.12) 0.023
Work status Current worker 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Non-current 0.92 (0.69–1.21) 0.531 1.11 (0.62–1.97) 0.732 1.84 (1.29–2.61) 0.001
Never worked 1.98 (1.20–3.29) 0.009 n/a n/a 1.39 (0.89–2.16) 0.149
Self-rated health Good 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Moderate 0.96 (0.75–1.22) 0.710 1.27 (0.67–2.43) 0.464 1.36 (0.75–2.49) 0.309
Bad 1.54 (1.17–2.04) 0.003 1.20 (0.58–2.47) 0.621 1.27 (0.67–2.40) 0.457
  1. aData source – WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), 2007–2010
  2. [OR (CI)] Unadjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals
  3. Statistical significance set at p < 0.05 (logistic regression)
  4. [n/a] No result due to no observation in the “never worked” group
  5. All significant estimates are bolded