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Table 2 Prevalence of self-reported unmet need for oral health services by characteristics, adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India, 2007-2010a

From: Socioeconomic inequality in self-reported unmet need for oral health services in adults aged 50 years and over in China, Ghana, and India

   China
N = 1591
Ghana
N = 425
India
N = 1307
Unmet need   n % (CI) p-value n % (CI) p-value n % (CI) p-value
  Total 927 60.00 (56.18–63.70)   348 80.34 (75.42–84-48)   810 61.97 (56.92–66.77)  
Sex Male 422 47.79 (43.99–51.61) 0.961 182 55.05 (48.51–61.42) 0.507 395 50.43 (44.41–56.43) 0.2175
Female 505 52.21 (48.39–56.01) 166 44.95 (38.58–51.49) 415 49.57 (43.57–55.59)
Age (years) 50–59 242 29.91 (27.24–32.72) p < 0.001 118 34.83 (28.41–41.86) 0.128 237 33.15 (29.10–37.47) p < 0.0001
60–69 278 32.52 (29.67–35.50) 94 26.73 (21.93–32.14) 283 33.17 (28.58–38.11)
70–79 291 26.81 (22.71–31.35) 87 25.11 (20.11–30.86) 202 24.83 (20.62–29.57)
80+ 116 10.77 (08.11–14.15) 49 13.34 (09.88–17.77) 88 08.85 (06.60–11.78)
Residence Urban 276 29.09 (24.83–33.76) p < 0.001 121 34.27 (28.26–40.82) 0.049 158 26.72 (17.88–37.90) 0.8069
Rural 651 70.91 (66.24–75.17) 227 65.73 (59.18–71.74) 652 73.28 (62.10–82.12)
Marital status No-married 9 01.28 (00.66–02-48) 0.031 1 00.29 (00.01–02.02) 0.024 13 01.38 (00.56–03.36) 0.0250
Married 693 78.73 (75.58–81.58) 186 57.58 (51.33–63.74) 521 68.75 (63.87–73.25)
Divorce 225 19.98 (17.42–22.82) 161 42.03 (35.87–48.44) 276 29.87 (25.52–34.62)
Wealth status 1(Highest) 111 13.55 (10.53–17.27) p < 0.001 56 15.59 (11.72–20.45) 0.021 152 20.98 (16.91–25.71) 0.6890
2 150 18.77 (15.33–22.77) 71 21.69 (16.62–27.79) 160 17.84 (14.47–21.79)
3 182 22.48 (17.27–28-73) 72 22.71 (17.30–29.21) 156 20.59 (15.00–27.59)
4 195 20.28 (16.88–24.16) 66 17.93 (13.69–23.14) 176 19.12 (15.46–23.41)
5(Lowest) 289 24.92 (20.90–29.43) 83 22.08 (17.83–27.00) 166 21.47 (16.76–27.07)
Education University 18 01.84 (00.95–03.56) p < 0.001 7 01.98 (00.92–04.21) 0.004 10 01.53 (00.60–03.84) 0.0118
Secondary 152 18.02 (14.74–21.84) 73 20.89 (16.11–26.64) 104 16.70 (12.56–21.86)
Primary 356 40.40 (36.57–44.35) 60 18.55 (13.99–24.17) 195 24.89 (20.70–29.60)
No school 401 39.74 (36.29–43.29) 208 58.58 (51.46–65.36) 501 56.89 (49.97–63.55)
Work status Never work 91 08.24 (05.45–12.29) 0.024 0 0.00 0.217 222 27.14 (22.75–32.03) 0.0065
working 383 45.37 (39.93–50.93) 228 66.82 (60.30–72.75) 253 33.37 (28.44–38.70)
Not current 453 46.38 (41.23–51.61) 120 33.18 (27.25–39.70) 335 39.49 (34.57–44.63)
Self-rated health Good 199 24.13 (20.58–28.07) 0.007 112 33.41 (27.73–39.61) 0.753 147 21.16 (14.58–29.68) 0.4663
Moderate 399 40.40 (37.01–43.88) 141 40.67 (34.44–47.21) 410 47.66 (42.07–53.30)
Bad 329 35.48 (31.57–39.59) 95 25.92 (20.97–31.59) 253 31.18 (25.85–37.06)
  1. aData source – WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), 2007–2010
  2. [n] Number of respondents who self-reported unmet need for oral health services
  3. [%(CI)] Weighted percent and Confidence Interval
  4. Statistical significance set at p < 0.05
  5. All significant estimates are bolded