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Table 5 Marginal effects from the probit models of the eight biological cardiovascular risk factors in VIP participants aged 40- and 50-years old in 2008–2010 by gender

From: Decomposition of gendered income-related inequalities in multiple biological cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-aged population

Variable dF/dx BMI Abdominal Obesity Cholesterol Triglycerides Hyperglycemia Blood pressure HDL levels LDL levels
Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men
Age                 
 40 years                 
 50 years 0.002 -0.016 0.094 0.046 0.079 0.073 0.034 0.015 0.024 0.090 0.100 0.162 -0.090 -0.047 0.045 0.058
Year of participation                 
 2008                 
 2009 0.028 0.023 0.024 0.023 0.021 0.015 0.032 0.067 0.012 -0.008 -0.007 0.003 -0.074 -0.089 0.006 0.006
 2010 0.038 0.025 0.055 0.054 0.040 0.063 0.013 0.033 0.005 0.006 0.001 0.046 -0.131 -0.129 0.006 0.033
Total earned income                 
 Lowest quintile 0.061 0.034 0.099 0.042 0.012 0.002 0.042 0.036 0.016 0.063 -0.010 0.025 0.044 0.007 0.011 -0.001
 2 0.050 0.006 0.057 0.010 0.002 -0.004 0.019 -0.008 0.019 0.041 -0.011 0.025 0.011 -0.009 0.006 -0.004
 3 0.018 -0.009 0.038 -0.019 -0.010 -0.005 0.015 -0.015 0.009 0.023 -0.012 -0.014 0.011 0.004 -0.005 -0.011
 4 -0.008 -0.014 0.038 -0.012 -0.004 -0.013 -0.004 0.009 0.025 0.013 -0.018 0.008 -0.003 -0.021 -0.006 -0.013
Highest quintile                 
 Education level                 
 Compulsory education up to 9 yrs 0.053 0.089 0.097 0.086 0.037 0.009 0.116 0.085 0.004 0.055 0.025 0.076 0.152 0.039 0.020 0.021
 Secondary education up to 2 yrs 0.030 0.076 0.067 0.099 0.032 0.038 0.060 0.061 0.014 0.040 0.002 0.064 0.065 0.036 0.015 0.015
 Secondary education 3 yrs 0.041 0.079 0.027 0.087 0.025 0.000 0.043 0.062 -0.003 0.035 0.007 0.045 0.103 0.060 0.013 0.000
 Post-secondary less than 3 yrs 0.048 0.068 0.049 0.080 0.020 0.029 0.043 0.034 -0.003 0.062 0.019 0.044 0.040 -0.003 0.001 0.018
Post-secondary 3 yrs or more and postgraduate                 
Occupation                 
 Managers & Upper professionals                 
 Middle non-manual -0.009 -0.018 -0.008 -0.031 -0.013 0.020 -0.015 0.000 0.001 -0.003 0.014 0.037 0.007 -0.022 -0.004 0.025
 Lower non-manual 0.007 0.016 -0.002 0.002 -0.003 0.007 0.025 0.039 0.007 -0.003 0.011 0.053 0.046 -0.055 -0.004 0.003
 Skilled manual 0.010 0.003 0.034 -0.001 -0.012 -0.010 -0.002 0.001 0.011 0.004 0.033 0.019 0.012 -0.024 0.000 0.006
 Unskilled manual 0.061 -0.001 0.066 0.019 -0.003 -0.005 -0.021 0.026 0.059 0.078 0.068 0.008 0.035 -0.032 -0.006 0.009
 Immigrant status 0.004 -0.014 -0.027 -0.010 0.002 -0.011 0.009 0.032 0.051 0.037 -0.034 -0.026 -0.002 0.053 -0.003 -0.014
 Civil status                 
Unmarried                 
 Married -0.027 -0.016 -0.016 -0.033 0.003 -0.015 0.004 -0.007 -0.012 -0.024 -0.011 -0.006 -0.004 -0.011 0.001 -0.005
 Divorced -0.038 -0.014 -0.071 -0.016 -0.003 -0.023 -0.001 0.003 -0.024 -0.025 -0.014 -0.023 -0.017 -0.005 -0.010 -0.021
 Widowed -0.004 0.093 0.040 0.162 -0.027 0.113 -0.015 0.030 -0.010 -0.004 -0.001 -0.022 -0.056 0.040 -0.012 0.063
 Children in household -0.025 -0.027 -0.017 -0.034 -0.020 -0.026 -0.032 -0.042 -0.018 -0.018 -0.012 -0.039 -0.008 -0.006 -0.012 -0.017
Geographical area                 
 Coastal with hospital                 
 Coastal without hospital 0.063 0.030 0.088 0.061 0.012 0.049 0.001 0.007 -0.021 -0.025 -0.005 0.057 0.041 0.019 0.012 0.023
 Inland with hospital 0.055 0.073 0.017 0.038 0.036 0.085 0.036 -0.020 -0.013 0.025 0.104 0.164 -0.017 0.007 0.015 0.049
 Inland without hospital 0.050 0.041 0.042 0.013 0.039 0.053 0.041 0.024 -0.028 -0.033 0.014 0.088 0.006 0.045 0.007 0.044
Other -0.057 0.035 0.101 0.078 0.030 -0.015 0.072 0.120 0.149 -0.007 -0.043 -0.004 0.103 0.319 0.063 -0.016
 Physical activity                 
 Sedentary 0.148 0.098 0.172 0.119 0.022 0.021 0.056 0.103 0.098 0.044 0.040 0.068 0.119 0.086 0.004 0.015
 Moderate activity 0.080 0.064 0.121 0.093 0.011 0.022 0.029 0.081 0.025 0.038 0.018 0.012 0.050 0.075 0.005 0.024
Physically active                 
Smoking                 
Never smokers                 
 Former smokers 0.014 0.040 0.043 0.032 0.020 0.011 0.015 0.016 0.007 0.021 0.002 -0.018 0.022 0.003 0.012 0.001
 Smokers 0.006 0.030 0.019 0.051 0.015 0.023 0.091 0.092 0.026 0.014 -0.015 -0.020 0.068 0.039 0.013 -0.001
Snus                 
 Not using                 
 Former user 0.018 0.002 0.006 0.021 -0.007 0.026 0.007 0.006 0.004 0.001 -0.007 0.003 0.002 -0.017 -0.003 0.011
 Currently user -0.011 0.014 -0.004 0.027 0.001 0.026 0.004 0.047 -0.005 -0.003 -0.022 -0.003 -0.057 -0.008 0.000 0.010
Alcohol disorder test                 
Not at risk                 
 Probably risk alcohol consumption -0.002 0.035 0.016 0.067 -0.001 0.030 0.030 0.060 0.010 0.004 0.023 0.036 -0.061 -0.064 -0.007 0.019
 Probably alcohol dependence 0.033 0.003 0.076 -0.003 0.001 0.052 0.113 -0.022 0.101 0.070 -0.001 0.037 -0.002 -0.084 -0.003 0.066
 Availability of social interaction 0.012 0.024 0.005 -0.010 0.000 -0.001 -0.006 0.028 -0.012 0.008 -0.005 0.018 -0.003 0.009 -0.001 -0.005
 Availability of attachment -0.004 -0.016 -0.009 -0.013 0.001 -0.003 0.010 -0.014 0.020 -0.005 -0.005 0.016 0.006 -0.007 0.000 -0.001
Job strain                 
Low strain                 
 Passive -0.007 0.008 -0.007 -0.006 -0.008 0.013 0.011 0.013 0.009 0.028 -0.010 -0.010 -0.041 0.004 -0.012 0.008
 Active -0.010 0.024 -0.013 0.020 0.006 0.020 0.014 0.028 0.002 0.024 -0.012 0.022 -0.026 0.000 -0.005 0.024
 High strain -0.002 0.038 -0.013 0.034 -0.002 0.013 0.001 0.036 0.007 0.033 -0.019 0.021 -0.060 -0.002 -0.003 0.018
  1. Bold indicates p < 0.05