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Table 3 Second treatment and associated costs

From: Making free public healthcare attractive: optimizing health equity funds in Cambodia

  HoHEF
N (%)
N = 411
CHEF
N (%)
N = 450
iSHPS
N (%)
N = 1153
HoHEF vs CHEH CHEF vs iSHPS HoHEF vs iSHPS
  Cluster adjusted Chi square = 0.001
Went for 2nd treatment 51 (12.4) 66 (14.7) 248 (21.5)    
 Those who initiated care at public facility 7 (12.7) 32 (18.1) 146 (23.0)    
 at private provider 29 (13.9) 14 (8.7) 74 (22.0)    
 at non-medical provider 15 (10.2) 20 (18.2) 28 (16.3)    
Sought care for 2nd treatment at Cluster adjusted Chi square = 0.001
 Health centre 3 (5.9) 15 (22.7) 72 (29.0)    
 Public hospital 6 (11.8) 9 (13.6) 28 (11.3)    
 Private facility 23 (45.1) 19 (28.8) 116 (46.8)    
 Non-Medical 19 (37.3) 23 (34.9) 32 (12.9)    
 >Proportion going to a public facility (17.6) (36.4) (40.3)    
Direct medical cost in US$ [SD] p-value*
 Health centre 0.5 [0.3] 0.1 [0.04] 0.2 [1.8] < 0.001 NS < 0.001
 Public hospital 16.9 [33.7] 10.6 [26.2] 3.7 [16.8] NS NS 0.026
 Private facility 10.1 [10.2] 10.4 [8.4] 13.9 [15.7] NS NS NS
 Non-Medical 2.7 [2.2] 1.8 [2.5] 3.5 [6.6] NS NS NS
Average per patient who sought 2nd treatment 7.5 [13.8] 5.0 [10.9] 7.4 [13.7] 0.039 0.024 NS
Direct non-medical costs in US$ [SD]
 Health centre 0.3 [0.3] 0.8 [1.7] 0.3 [0.85] NS NS NS
 Public hospital 3.6 [3.0] 4.6 [4.1] 4.3 [4.6] NS NS NS
 Private facility 0.9 [1.7] 1.2 [1.3] 1.0 [1.7] NS NS NS
 Non-Medical 0.3 [0.91] 0 [0] 0.5 [2.2] NS NS NS
Average per patient who sought 2nd treatment 1.0 [1.9] 1.1 [2.2] 1.1 [2.4] NSS NS NS
Total cost 2nd treatment per patient who sought care in US$ [SD] 8.5 [14.9] 6.1 [11.7] 8.5 [14.4] NS NS NS
Overall cost per patient who sought care in US$ 20.7 19.5 10.4 NS < 0.001 < 0.001
    Of which treatment costs
    (% of total)
20.0 (96.6) 16.6 (85.1) 9.3 (89.4)    
    Of which transport costs
    (% of total)
0.7 (3.4) 2.9 (14.9) 1.2 (10.6)    
  1. NS not significant, SD standard deviation: * Bonferroni–Dunn post hoc test for multiple comparison after cluster adjusted Kruskal Wallis test