Skip to main content

Table 2 Care seeking and associated costs at first provider (those who were sick)

From: Making free public healthcare attractive: optimizing health equity funds in Cambodia

  HoHEF
N (%)
N = 411
CHEF
N (%)
N = 450
iSHPS
N (%)
N = 1153
HoHEF vs CHEF CHEF vs iSHPS HoHEF vs iSHPS
Sought care at Cluster adjusted Chi square < 0.001
 Health centre 34 (8.3) 130 (29.0) 559 (48.7)    
 Public hospital 21 (5.1) 47 (10.5) 80 (7.0)    
 Private facility 209 (50.8) 161 (36.0) 337 (29.3)    
 Non-medical 147 (35.8) 110 (24.6) 172 (15.0)    
 Total who went public 55 (13.4) 177 (39.5) 639 (55.7)    
Use of IDPoor card Cluster adjusted Chi square < 0.001
 Health centre 19 (55.8) 121 (93.0) 422 (75.5)    
 Hospital 9 (42.8) 29 (61.7) 40 (50.0)    
 Any public facility 28 (50.9) 150 (84.7) 462 (72.3)    
Distance to provider in km [SD] p-value*
 Health centre 1.7 [2.5] 5.4 [7.9] 3.4 [4.1] < 0.001 0.007 0.001
 Public hospital 16.8 [14.5] 35.3[21.9] 19.9 [23.3] 0.001 0.001 NS
 Private facility 3.1 [9.5] 9.7 [12.3] 4.7 [9.0] < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001
 Non-medical 1.1 [1.1] 2.5 [5.3] 1.4 [2.8] NS NS NS
 Average per facility 2.8 [8.1] 8.9 [14.2] 4.5 [9.1] < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
Direct medical cost in US$ [SD]
 Health centre 1.6 [5.4] 3.1 [32.9] 0.08 [0.9] < 0.001 NS < 0.001
 Public hospital 27.4 [45.3] 25.0 [60.3] 16.9 [57.7] NS NS NS
 Private facility 32.1 [64.0] 30.4 [46.6] 20.5 [33.3] 0.05 0.001 NS
 Non-medical 3.3 [4.7] 6.4 [16.5] 3.4 [6.8] NS NS NS
 Average per patient 19.1 [48.9] 15.9 [40.9] 7.7 [25.4] < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Direct non-medical cost in US$ [SD]
 Health centre 0.3 [0.4] 0.9 [1.5] 0.3 [1.6] NS < 0.001 NS
 Public hospital 4.7 [4.8] 11.4 [15.4] 5.4 [7.1] NS NS NS
 Private facility 0.6 [1.4] 2.6 [6.4] 1.1 [2.5] < 0.001 0.001 0.014
 Non-medical 0.14 [0.3] 1.2 [7.0] 0.14 [0.4] NS NS NS
 Average per patient 0.6 [1.8] 2.7 [7.8] 0.9 [2.9] < 0.001 < 0.001 1.0
Average total cost in US$ [SD] 19.7 [49.2] 18.6 [64.3] 8.6 [26.3] 0.014 < 0.001 < 0.001
   Initiates care at public facilities 13.4 12.6 3.1 NS < 0.001 0.001
   Initiates care at private facilities 20.6 19.5 15.5 NS NS NS
  1. NS not significant, SD standard deviation; * Bonferroni–Dunn post hoc test for multiple comparison after cluster adjusted Kruskal Wallis test