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Table 3 Coefficients of multiple linear regression and global concentration index (CI), according to period of the survey. ISA 2003, 2008, 2015 (SP), Brazil, 2003–2015

From: Determinants of inequalities in the quality of Brazilian diet: trends in 12-year population-based study (2003–2015)

Individual characteristics and external factors* 2003 2008 2015
β p** β p** β p**
Age (Ref. 12–19 years)
 20–59 3.311 < 0.001 6.315 < 0.001 2.379 0.012
 ≥ 60 7.370 < 0.001 9.522 < 0.001 6.316 < 0.001
Sex (Ref. Male)    0.272 0.700   
Chronic disease (Ref. Absence) −2.797 0.003     
Physical activity (min/day) −0.004 0.026    −0.004 0.045
Smoking habit (Ref. Non-smoker)
 Current smoker −2.285 0.015 −3.261 < 0.001 − 2.335 0.031
Alcohol consumption (Ref. No)      −2.820 0.001
BHEI-R Component - Whole grains 2.078 0.001 2.330 < 0.001 2.413 < 0.001
BHEI-R Component - Sodium    −0.942 < 0.001 −1.000 < 0.001
Health insurance (Ref. Yes)    −1.600 0.048   
Education (years) −0.254 0.016     
Ethnic group (Ref. Yellow)
 White −4.772 0.002     
 Black −7.026 < 0.001     
 Grayish-brown −5.196 0.002     
 Indigenous −5.016 0.021     
Household income per capita (in MW) (Ref. < 1 MW)    1.810 0.019 2.039 0.004
Type of residence (Ref. Not living at home)    −2.672 0.012   
Occupation (Ref. Unemployed)    −1.914 0.034   
Marital status (Ref. With partner)      −2.617 0.006
R 2 0.099 < 0.001 0.211 < 0.001 0.200 < 0.001
CI −0.009   0.001   0.005  
  1. *Analyzes considered complex sample design for representativeness of the population of São Paulo
  2. **Multiple linear regression, descriptive level p < 0,05