Skip to main content

Table 2 BHEI-R and its components, according age groups. ISA 2003, 2008, 2015 (SP), Brazil, 2003–2015

From: Determinants of inequalities in the quality of Brazilian diet: trends in 12-year population-based study (2003–2015)

BHEI-R Components*
(maximum score)
Total Adolescents Adults Older Adults
2003 (n = 2398) 2008 (n = 1662) 2015 (n = 1742) p** 2003 (n = 811) 2008 (n = 560) 2015 (n = 554) p** 2003 (n = 756) 2008 (n = 585) 2015 (n = 643) p** 2003 (n = 831) 2008 (n = 517) 2015 (n = 545) p**
Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE) Mean (SE)
Total fruit (5) 1.83 (0.07) 1.94 (0.08) 2.46 (0.07) < 0.001
< 0.001
1.64 (0.10) 1.36 (0.08) 1.85 (0.12) 0.059
0.038
1.72 (0.09) 1.88 (0.11) 2.39 (0.10) < 0.001
< 0.001
2.71 (0.10) 2.88 (0.14) 3.23 (0.11) 0.001
< 0.001
Whole fruit (5) 1.54 (0.08) 1.92 (0.09) 2.32 (0.08) < 0.001
< 0.001
1.24 (0.09) 1.22 (0.08) 1.54 (0.11) 0.010
0.005
1.41 (0.09) 1.86 (0.12) 2.21 (0.10) < 0.001
< 0.001
2.67 (0.11) 3.01 (0.14) 3.38 (0.12) < 0.001
< 0.001
Total vegetable (5) 4.12 (0.05) 4.17 (0.06) 4.05 (0.05) 0.132
0.157
3.72 (0.08) 3.59 (0.12) 3.74 (0.10) 0.801
0.526
4.20 (0.07) 4.25 (0.07) 4.09 (0.06) 0.117
0.058
4.32 (0.05) 4.34 (0.07) 4.27 (0.09) 0.460
0.801
DGOV&L (5)a 3.46 (0.08) 3.61 (0.09) 3.30 (0.07) 0.047
0.081
2.95 (0.09) 2.86 (0.11) 3.05 (0.13) 0.401
0.918
3.57 (0.11) 3.73 (0.11) 3.32 (0.11) 0.036
0.010
3.64 (0.07) 3.79 (0.11) 3.51 (0.11) 0.239
0.321
Total grains (5) 4.59 (0.03) 4.52 (0.04) 4.54 (0.03) 0.013
< 0.001
4.69 (0.04) 4.55 (0.04) 4.62 (0.04) 0.025
0.015
4.56 (0.04) 4.50 (0.05) 4.52 (0.05) 0.166
0.178
4.55 (0.05) 4.59 (0.04) 4.50 (0.04) 0.056
< 0.001
Whole grains (5) 0.23 (0.03) 0.41 (0.04) 0.44 (0.04) < 0.001
< 0.001
0.09 (0.02) 0.29 (0.04) 0.29 (0.06) < 0.001
< 0.001
0.25 (0.04) 0.39 (0.05) 0.41 (0.05) < 0.001
< 0.001
0.35 (0.05) 0.62 (0.07) 0.68 (0.08) < 0.001
< 0.001
Milk and dairy (10) 4.67 (0.15) 4.35 (0.14) 4.60 (0.13) 0.901
0.980
4.40 (0.20) 4.43 (0.18) 4.23 (0.18) 0.444
0.405
4.59 (0.18) 4.21 (0.18) 4.43 (0.17) 0.631
0.862
5.48 (0.17) 4.99 (0.18) 5.40 (0.18) 0.745
0.222
Meats, eggs and legumes (10) 8.26 (0.11) 8.54 (0.09) 8.28 (0.09) 0.525
0.903
7.89 (0.15) 8.08 (0.12) 8.29 (0.16) 0.035
0.104
8.43 (0.15) 8.69 (0.11) 8.31 (0.13) 0.194
0.046
7.93 (0.12) 8.24 (0.15) 8.20 (0.14) 0.495
0.819
Oils (10)b 7.15 (0.09) 9.14 (0.08) 9.18 (0.06) < 0.001
< 0.001
6.75 (0.15) 8.80 (0.13) 9.24 (0.09) < 0.001
< 0.001
7.27 (0.11) 9.20 (0.11) 9.21 (0.10) < 0.001
< 0.001
7.14 (0.15) 9.21 (0.11) 9.04 (0.14) < 0.001
< 0.001
Saturated fat (10) 6.57 (0.13) 6.62 (0.14) 6.59 (0.12) 0.957
0.510
6.60 (0.17) 6.34 (0.15) 6.50 (0.17) 0.577
0.781
6.47 (0.17) 6.63 (0.19) 6.57 (0.17) 0.552
0.172
7.08 (0.15) 6.88 (0.17) 6.74 (0.17) 0.044
0.034
Sodium (10) 2.39 (0.09) 2.60 (0.10) 3.14 (0.10) < 0.001
< 0.001
2.88 (0.12) 3.38 (0.16) 3.43 (0.15) < 0.001
< 0.001
2.32 (0.11) 2.49 (0.14) 3.24 (0.15) < 0.001
< 0.001
2.05 (0.11) 2.30 (0.13) 2.62 (0.15) 0.001
< 0.001
SoFAAS (20)c 9.86 (0.31) 8.61 (0.26) 9.48 (0.20) 0.105
< 0.001
7.92 (0.39) 5.44 (0.26) 7.62 (0.29) 0.638
0.243
9.84 (0.35) 8.64 (0.36) 9.33 (0.29) 0.151
0.189
12.87 (0.27) 11.93 (0.28) 11.68 (0.27) < 0.001
< 0.001
BHEI-R (100) 54.70 (0.51) 56.42 (0.50) 58.38 (0.39) < 0.001
< 0.001
50.76 (0.57) 50.33 (0.42) 54.46 (0.56) < 0.001
< 0.001
54.64 (0.62) 56.47 (0.66) 58.02 (0.60) < 0.001
< 0.001
60.79 (0.55) 62.78 (0.57) 63.24 (0.49) 0.001
< 0.001
  1. *Analyzes considered complex sample design for representativeness of the population of São Paulo
  2. **Kruskal-Wallis and nptrend tests. p < 0.05
  3. aDGOV&L = Dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes
  4. bOils = Vegetable oils. Seed oils and oily fish
  5. cSoFAAS = Total calories from solid fat. Alcohol and added sugar
  6. SE = Standard Error