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Table 1 Characteristics of the population*, according period of the survey. ISA 2003, 2008, 2015. (SP), Brazil, 2003–2015

From: Determinants of inequalities in the quality of Brazilian diet: trends in 12-year population-based study (2003–2015)

Variables* ISA 2003 ISA 2008 ISA 2015
n** % (CI 95%)*** n** % (CI 95%)*** n** % (CI 95%)***
Sex
 Male 1186 46.06 (43.38–48.77) 722 46.90 (44.37–49.44) 837 50.02 (47.17–52.86)
 Female 1212 53.94 (51.23–56.62) 940 53.10 (50.56–55.64) 905 49.98 (47.14–52.83)
Age group (years)
 12–19 811 18.93 (16.98–21.05) 560 15.14 (12.93–17.34) 554 23.17 (20.87–25.66)
 20–59 756 68.18 (66.01–70.27) 585 71.00 (68.00–74.01) 643 54.15 (51.45–56.82)
 ≥ 60 831 12.89 (11.30–14.66) 517 13.86 (11.62–16.10) 545 22.68 (19.90–25.71)
Ethnic group
 White 1517 65.51 (61.63–69.20) 963 58.46 (52.72–64.20) 840 49.59 (45.76–53.41)
 Non-white 870 34.49 (30.80–38.37) 697 41.54 (35.80–47.28) 888 50.41 (46.59–54.24)
Education
 ≤ 4 years 1048 35.60 (31.88–39.53) 595 22.65 (19.05–26.70) 265 12.33 (10.50–14.44)
 5–9 years 518 22.96 (20.20–25.97) 450 24.16 (19.11–30.04) 607 30.22 (27.69–32.88)
 10–12 years 454 21.01 (18.21–24.11) 375 33.39 (28.08–39.15) 573 33.95 (31.31–36.67)
 ≥ 12 years or more 347 20.43 (16.41–25.13) 216 19.80 (14.59–26.31) 292 23.50 (20.16–27.21)
Household income per capita
 < 1 MW 1123 42.06 (37.75–46.49) 1263 74.88 (69.07–79.91) 769 50.07 (45.13–55.00)
 ≥ 1 MW 1275 57.94 (53.51–62.25) 399 25.12 (20.09–30.93) 640 49.93 (45.00–54.88)
Occupation
 Unemployed 842 25.54 (22.45–28.88) 603 25.74 (22.63–29.12) 955 46.22 (43.42–49.05)
 Employed 1531 74.46 (71.12–77.55) 1028 74.26 (70.88–77.37) 761 53.78 (50.95–56.58)
Marital status
 With partner 1661 71.38 (67.99–74.54) 1101 70.13 (65.64–74.27) 1068 56.07 (53.20–58.90)
 Without partner 713 28.62 (25.46–32.01) 536 29.87 (25.73–34.36) 666 43.93 (41.10–46.80)
Type of residence
 House 2043 81.10 (72.78–87.31) 1533 93.04 (88.26–95.96) 1339 77.17 (70.82–82.49)
 Apartment 305 17.75 (11.66–26.09) 116 6.30 (3.49–11.12) 197 13.65 (9.56–19.14)
 Shed 6 0.33 (0.09–1.13) 9 0.53 (0.12–2.27) 2 0.13 (0.03–0.57)
 House of rooms 17 0.82 (0.16–4.25) 3 0.13 (0.03–0.75) 149 9.04 (5.79–13.85)
Physical activity
 Active 613 21.93 (18.99–25.18) 366 18.11 (15.00–22.69) 442 22.93 (20.36–25.71)
 Inactive 1759 78.07 (74.82–81.01) 1296 81.89 (78.31–84.99) 1277 77.07 (74.29–79.64)
Smoking habits
 Non-smoker 1651 66.38 (63.48–69.15) 1155 64.17 (60.45–67.87) 1261 71.23 (68.38–73.92)
 Former smoker 371 14.72 (12.40–17.40) 274 16.04 (13.21–18.86) 261 14.79 (12.57–17.31)
 Current smoker 360 18.90 (16.53–21.52) 232 19.79 (16.44–23.14) 214 13.98 (12.19–15.99)
Alcohol consumption
 No 1350 48.49 (44.79–52.20) 962 47.89 (44.69–51.08) 1292 69.35 (65.69–72.79)
 Yes 1026 51.51 (47.80–55.21) 699 52.11 (48.92–55.31) 442 30.65 (27.21–34.31)
Chronic disease
 No 1834 84.56 (82.33–86.55) 1222 79.46 (76.74–81.94) 1268 76.13 (73.75–78.35)
 Yes 533 15.44 (13.45–17.67) 439 20.54 (18.06–23.26) 464 23.87 (21.65–26.25)
Health Insurance
 No 1584 63.07 (58.80–67.16) 1126 64.60 (59.07–69.76) 1108 61.00 (56.79–65.05)
 Yes 772 36.93 (32.84–41.20) 536 35.40 (30.24–40.93) 622 39.00 (34.95–43.21)
  1. *Analyzes considered complex sample design for representativeness of the population of São Paulo
  2. **Individuals interviewed in the sample. Exclusion of individuals with missing information
  3. ***CI 95% = Confidence Interval 95%. Confidence intervals do not overlap, i.e., there is (at least) 95% confidence that values are not equal in the population
  4. MW = minimum wage