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Table 4 Comparison of the concentration indexes for diabetes mellitus and its risk factors by different measures of socio economic statuses

From: Inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in Sri Lanka: a lower middle income country

Morbidity / risk factor Individual Household Area
Education (95%CI) Occupation (95%CI) Income (95%CI) Social status Index (95%CI) Unsatisfactory Basic Needs Index (95%CI)
Prevalence of diabetes mellitus 0.01 (−0.1–0.11) 0.12 (− 0.01–0.25) 0.03 (− 0.07–0.13) 0.05 (−0.05–0.16) 0.17 (0.07–0.26)*
Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance 0.09 (−0.03–0.21) 0.07 (− 0.09–0.24) 0.09 (− 0.03–0.21) 0.07 (−0.05–0.19) 0.12 (0.1–0.24)*
High body mass index 0.23 (0.08–0.37)* 0.2 (− 0.01–0.4) 0.01 (− 0.13–0.16) 0.11 (−0.03–0.25) 0.19 (0.05–0.34)*
High waist circumference 0.14 (0.01–0.28)* 0.22 (0.05–0.39) * 0.03 (− 0.11–0.16) 0.12 (− 0.02–0.26) 0.23 (0.1–0.37)*
Family history of diabetes mellitus 0.06 (−0.07–0.18) −0.001 (− 0.18–0.18) 0.05 (− 0.07–0.17) 0.06 (−0.05–0.16) 0.12 (0.01–0.23)*
Insufficient physical activity 0.11 (−0.02–0.23) −0.18 (− 0.36- -0.002)* 0.02 (− 0.12–0.15) 0.01 (− 0.12–0.14) −0.15 (− 0.27- -0.02)*
Inadequate fruit intake −0.14 (− 0.28- -0.003)* − 0.14 (− 0.33–0.04) −0.29 (− 0.43- -0.15)* − 0.41 (− 0.54- -0.28)* − 0.37 (− 0.5- -0.24)*
Inappropriate sugar intake 0.20 (0.07–0.34)* 0.13 (− 0.07–0.33) 0.28 (0.14–0.42)* 0.33 (0.2–0.46)* 0.46 (0.33–0.58)*
Smokinga − 0.12 (− 0.35–0.11) − 0.31 (− 0.56- -0.07)* − 0.04 (− 0.27–0.18) − 0.06 (− 0.29–0.16) 0.16 (− 0.07–0.39)
Alcohol consumptiona − 0.01 (− 0.21–0.19) −0.07 (− 0.28–0.15) 0.01 (− 0.19–0.21) 0.21 (0.001–0.42)* 0.19 (− 0.02–0.39)
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. aSmoking and Alcohol consumption was tested only for males