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Table 7 Multiple regression model for total healthcare costs in middle-aged and elderly adults

From: Social health insurance, healthcare utilization, and costs in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling adults in China

Variables/categories Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err. Coef. Std. Err.
Health insurance; ref.: Not covered by social health insurance
 UEMI 1.507*** 0.266     
 URMI    1.033*** 0.275   
 NCMI      0.920*** 0.174
Female, ref. male − 0.406* 0.186 − 0.556* 0.239 − 0.296*** 0.077
Age in years; ref.:<=50
  > 50 and <=65 0.931*** 0.260 0.576* 0.270 0.374*** 0.097
  > 65 1.202*** 0.288 0.922** 0.358 0.343** 0.118
Educational level; ref.: Less than lower secondary education
 Upper secondary & vocational training 0.331 0.223 0.442 0.330 0.181 0.153
 Tertiary education 0.850* 0.370 1.815 1.358 1.505 0.924
Marital status; ref.:
 Single/divorced/widowed       
 Married/cohabiting −0.073 0.251 0.145 0.316 0.037 0.109
Health status (self-reported); ref.: Excellent
 Very good 0.649 0.512 1.265* 0.602 1.793*** 0.240
 Good 0.977* 0.484 0.928 0.581 2.150*** 0.226
 Fair 2.490*** 0.449 2.377*** 0.507 3.279*** 0.210
 Poor 4.543*** 0.477 4.323*** 0.541 5.118*** 0.220
Income level; ref.: Lowest quintile
 Second quintile 0.773 0.564 0.829 0.503 0.319** 0.112
 Third quintile 0.842* 0.406 0.855* 0.418 0.551*** 0.113
 Fourth quintile 1.253** 0.432 0.999* 0.448 0.469*** 0.121
 Highest quintile 1.047* 0.435 1.031* 0.449 0.428*** 0.129
Live in Urban or Rural; ref.: urban −0.073 0.236 0.058 0.280 −0.276*** 0.086
  1. Estimates were weighted using individual sampling weights and adjusted for household and individual responses
  2. Note: *** implies p-value < 0.001, ** indicates p-value < 0.01, * implies p-value < 0.05